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by: Mrs. Annabell Graham

SurveyoftheMassMedia BCA210

Mrs. Annabell Graham
GPA 3.61


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Class Notes
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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mrs. Annabell Graham on Monday October 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BCA210 at Central Michigan University taught by CurtisSutterfield in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see /class/218883/bca210-central-michigan-university in Broadcast & Cinematic Arts at Central Michigan University.


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Date Created: 10/05/15
BCA 210 Ethics Origin of Ethical concepts in journalism A From Ethos 1 Greek word for governing traditions 2 Privileges carry obligations B Ethical issues in media 1 Truthfulness 2 Fairness a No con ict of interest 3 Privacy a Not divulging potentially embarrassing items 4 Responsibility a Not exploiting De ning Ethical Dilemmas A Truthfulness 1 More than just accuracy 2 Armstrong Williams B Misrepresentations l Jayson Blair 2003 a Widespread plagiarism and fabrication 2 Janet Cooke 1980 a Won Pulitzer prize b Story was fabricated C Disinformation l Planting false stories in the media 2 Government using media D Fairness l Implies impartiality 2 No benefit for the reporter E Insider Friendships 1 Too close to the people in the story F Con ict of interest 1 Division of loyalties 2 Accepting freebies and junkets from story subjects G Checkbook Journalism 1 Paying for interviews with subjects H Privacy 1 Balancing truth with rights to privacy III I Reporting on illness 1 Public gures and AIDS 2 AIDS implies sexual orientation 3 If the gure wants to maintain the information as private should it stay private J Reporting on Rape l Rape victims are not named 2 Balancing bene t of printing the name VS not printing it K Responsibility 1 Not just what is reported but how it s reported L Staged Accidents 2006 1 Lindsay Lohan s car rammed by photographers 2 Aggressive paparazzi M Phony Web Story 2004 1 Fox forced to retract story 2 Falsely reported democratic presidential candidate John Kerry saying Women should like me I do manicures after debate Philosophy of Ethics A Aristotle s Golden Mean 1 All things in moderation B Kant s Categorical Imperative 1 What if everyone acted this way C Mill s Principle of Utility 1 The greatest happiness for the greatest number D Rawl s Veil of Ignorance 1 Basic respect for everyone E JudeoChristian View 1 Love your neighbor as yourself NAB Code of Ethics A National Association of Broadcasters B Member TV stations C Code covered news and entertainment 1 Responsibility handling of violence 2 Consequences of violence shown D Struck down in 1976 l Declared in violence of rst Amendment E Replaced by voluntary guidelines SPJ Code of Ethics A Society of professional Journalists B Major Points 1 Seek Truth and report it a Identify sources b No misrepresentation or distortion c Avoid misleading staged events d Never plagiarize e Avoid stereotyping f Distinguish between advocacy advertising and news 2 Minimize harm Be sensitive 3 Act independently refuse gifts and favors 4 Be Accountable a Admit mistakes VI RTDNA code of Ethics A RadioTelevision Digital News Association 1 Balanced fair and accurate a No sensationalism b No deception 2 Avoid con icts of interest 3 Respect dignity and privacy 4 Protect confidentiality 5 Respect the right to fair trial 6 Broadcast the right broadcasters only with permission 7 Actively encourage observance of the code VII PRSA Code of Ethics A Public Relations Society of America 1 Deal fairly with clients employers and general public 2 Adhere to truth accuracy and good taste 3 Do not intentionally communicate false or misleading information 4 Identify any client or employer 5 Do not guarantee results beyond one s direct control VIII The importance of professional Ethics A Daily issues in the newsroom B Issues usually dealt with publicly C Information as a public trust 1 Should not be weakened by untruth bias intrusiveness or irresponsibility D Power with responsibility 3 Questions BCA 210 News and Information 1 How has the perception of Nixon changed from All the President s Men to FrostNixon 2 How important of a role was a publicist in all of this 3 What s the difference between broadcasting and newspaper writing III Newsreels A News at the movies B British Pathe 1 19001970 C Fox Movie tone News 1 19191960 D 10 minutes long E Narrated F Weekly Updates G Employed more than 1000 camera people H Global coverage 1 Entertainment travel sports features etc Radio The sound of WWII A Ernie Pyle 1 Print reporter from the front B Edward R Murrow l The London Blitz 1940 2 Painting pictures with words 3 Covered important events from 19211947 a Radio to television C Radio stations news departments 1 Maintained until format radio era D Formed the foundation for television news The Golden Age of TV News A JFK 1 Presidential debates VI 2 Inauguration 3 Cuban Missile Crisis 4 Assassination 1963 B Vietnam War 1 Chicago Democratic Convention 1968 2 Candid war coverage C Watergate l 1973 Burglary 2 Nixon s resignation 1974 TV News Expands and Contracts A Local News Expands 1 Up to 2 hours local TV news B Broadcast deregulation 1980 s 1 Network consolidation 2 Local stations bought out C Cable News Network 1 Round the clock news 2 Global presence 3 Alternative to networks D 1990 s Decline 1 Internet affect 2 Network and local decline Iraq War A Militarypress relations B War Coverage C Embedded reporters l 600 reporters 2 Frontline access 3 Military control 4 Reversal of past policies 5 Nonstop coverage News on the Internet A Internet nonstop information B Service providers AOL compile headlines and news links from many sources C Targeted to individual needs D Replacing TV news E l 44 go online for news once a week 2 25 go to intemet as chief source ofnews F More news available from many sources VII Earning for Local News People A Radio B Television VIII Trends among Journalists A No evidence that reporters insert ideology into their stories B More minorities C Gains for women D Journalists are unlikely to challenge prevailing political and social values E Conformity in reporting Consensus Journalism IX Blurring Distinctions News Reality Shows and Advertising A Reality TV 1 Survivor Real stories of the Highway patrol America s most Wanted 2 Lines blurred between news and entertainment B Infomercials 1 Making advertising look like documentary news C Entertainmentdriven news 1 Constructing news broadcasts along entertainment lines X Source and Credibility A Con dentiality of Sources 1 Woodward and Bernstein a Deep Throat and Watergate b Mark Felt FBI agent 2 Judith Miller New York Times 3 Mark Cooper Time a Both ordered to reveal source of CIA leak case b Miller spent four months in Jail 4 Shield Laws a Protect journalists against revealing sources b No federal shield law B Credibility and audience 1 The intemet has captured audience credibility BCA 210 Advertising 1 Finding the Audience Demographics A Demographicssex age income marital status location occupation B Audience Analysis 1 De ning the audience 2 Who desires the product 3 Enough 0 make the ad worth the money spent 11 Pros and cons of Ads A Cost of products lP Helps make goods available and lower prices 2C consumers pay for advertising B Need vs want 1 p stimulates new products consumers will not continue to buy an unsatisfactory product 2c People buy what they don t need even dangerous products C Competition 1 p Less expensive than other forms of sales 2 c high costs of ad limits entry into the market place D Ad Power 1 p Helps people meet needs 2 c not knowing what the needs are 111 Dependence on Ads A Media Ad interdependence 1 With various media 2 With national economy B Economic Impacts 1 Ad budgets 2 Media platforms and costs IV Television Ads A Expensive to place 1 Avg 30 sec ad 100000 dollars primetime 2 30 sec ad on Super Bowl 2 million dollars B Networks and stations sell 10 15 and 30 second ads advertising on networks handled by national advertising agencies C Ad purchases based on CPM 1 Costperthousand D Expensive to produce 1 As much as a 1 million per minute E Other media more cost effective V Internet print and radio A Different media different audiences B Fierce competition 1 Competition claims a Print ads attack TV ads b Time vs Newsweek c Radio ads attack print C Local Ads 1 Most goes to newspaper 2 Local ad agencies 3 Local media ad services D Ad rep firms 1 Localized national marketing VI Regulations A Federal Trade Commission 1 1914 2 Stop businesses that restrict competition injure or deceive consumer 3 Can require corrective ad B Food and Drug Administration 1 Oversees claims that appear on food labels C Federal Communications commission 1 Misleading or tasteless ads D Distilled Spirits Council 1 Hard liquor ads 1996 E National Ad Review Council NARC l Hears complaints VII Delivering New markets A American agencies make half the world s ad dollars B Expanding international markets C Adapting to new technologies D Shifting demographic l Surging Hispanic population E Follow the audience 3 question No logo 1 How many brands do you see in a day an hour right now 2 How the actual products it makes have becomes less important for a company 3 How can a no logo campaign impact the media III BCA 210 Law and Regulation Free Press A Free press precedent 1 New York times vs Sullivan 2 Media role de ned as a uninhibited robust and Wideopen debate B Legal and regulatory issues 1 Balancing press freedom with a Interests of individuals b Interest of government US Constitution A The rst Amendment to the constitution B The fourth estate 1 The press as tribune of the people 2 An extra constitutional branch of government 3 Exposes public mismanagement Government Attempts to restrict press A Alien and sedition laws 1789 1 Prohibited antigovemment speech 2 Expired in 1801 B The Espionage Act of 1918 1 Prohibited antiwar speech in WWI C The Smith Act of 1940 1 WWII press censorship D HUAC and the permanent subcommittee on Investigations 1 House UnAmerican Activities Committee 2 Cold War congressional hearings 3 Hunting for communist 4 Discredited by news media Prior Restraint A Near v Minnesota 1 Saturday Post 1931 2 Printed names of prohibition violators 3 State could not stop publication B The pentagon papers 1 Time magazine 1971 2 Printed classi ed Vietnam War documents 3 Temporarily halted by court order C The progressive case 1 The progressive magazine 1979 2 Article on how to make a hydrogen bomb 3 Publication temporarily stopped V Obscenity and Censorship A Obscenity issues 1 Boston and HL Mencken s The American Mercury 1926 2 Salacious content 3 Magazine won the case B Roth vs United States 1957 1 Obscenity not protected by the first Amendment 2 Obscenity Materials utterly without redeeming social importance 3 Obscenity appeals to prurient interest 4 The Roth Test of contemporary community standards VI Censorship A Miller vs California 1973 1 Local courts must determine a Applying community standards whether a work appeals to prurient interest b Whether a work violates state law with offensive sexual depictions c Whether a work lacks literary artistic political or social valuethe LAPS test B School Boards 1 Banning library books 2 Censoring curricula VII Libel Law A The Sullivan Case 1964 1 Public officials must prove malice 2 Gertz V Robert Welch 1974 a Editorial opinion is not libel b Public figures 3 Herbert V Lando 1979 a Public figures may investigate reporters sources 4 Masson V The New Yorker 1991 a Grammatical changes not necessarily libelous VIII Libel Defense A To prove libel must show that 1 Statement communicated to a third party 2 Subject easily identi able in the statement 3 Statement injured the subject s reputation 4 Publisher of the statement is at fault B Defensive for libel 1 Truth a If it s true it s not libel 2 Quali ed privilege a Information obtained in court or legislature 3 Fair comment a Opinioncommentaryeditorials are not libel Famous Libel Cases A Carol Burnett V National Enquirer l Sued for 10 million 1983 2 Awarded 150000 B Gen Westmoreland V CBS 1 Sued for 120 million 1984 2 Settled out of court 3 18 million in legal fees C Graves V Warner Bros Jenny Jones Show 1 Michigan jury in 1999 said show was negligent 2 25 million judgment reversed but show later cancelled D Wayne Newton V NBC 1 Sued for 6 million 1990 2 Won no damages awarded Media invasion of privacy A Intruding on physical or mental solitude l Galella V Onassis 2 Photographers must maintain distance B Publishing embarrassing personal facts 1 Information not in the public record is private XI XII XIII 2 Bartnicki V Vopper a Cell phone conversation not protected if criminal in nature C False Light 1 Must portray subjects truthfully D Right of Publicity 1 May not use a celebrity s name for promotion without permission Fair Trial Access and sources A Fair trial 1 Sheppard V Maxwell 1954 2 Jury access to media later ruled as in uence on a conviction 1996 3 Original verdict overturned B Courtroom Access 1 Gag orders a Limited press access 2 Closed proceedings a No press access 3 Both rarely applied C Shield Laws 1 Protected source con dentiality 2 No federal protection Regulating Broadcast and cable A Federal Communications Commission 1 Regulates broadcasting 2 5 commissioners 5year terms 3 Appointed by the president approved by the senate 4 Licenses all stations B Federal Trade Commission 1 Regulates advertising C Airwaves are a public trust D Broadcasters are trustees operating in the public interest Telecommunications Act of 1996 A Philosophy of Deregulation 1 Competition improves choices 2 Favors larger media companies B Selling the bundle 1 Combination of services 2 TV telephone cable intemet XIV C Targeting Power Users 1 People using a lot ofmedia 2 Spends three or more times what the average user spends Effects of Deregulation A Goal of Universal Service 1 Access to all media for all people B Deregulation of free media 1 Radio and TV are free media C Relaxed ownership licensing rules 1 crossownership allowed a TV and radio in the same market D Local Phone competition 1 Phone companies allowed to offer video service E Unregulated Cable Rates 1 1992 cable Act removed 2 Deregulated cable rates


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