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Sociology Chapter 9 Notes

by: Nadeera Mohamed

Sociology Chapter 9 Notes SOCI 241

Nadeera Mohamed
University of Louisiana at Lafayette

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These are the ch. 9 notes on Crime and Punishment.
Social Problems
Dr. Candace May
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nadeera Mohamed on Sunday March 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOCI 241 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by Dr. Candace May in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Social Problems in Sociology at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.

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Date Created: 03/20/16
Chapter 9: Crime and Punishment Causes of Crime  Modern society  Materialism  Greed  Egoism  Anomie  Loss of community  Growing inequality Defining and Measuring Crime  Deviance  Behaviors and conditions outside the norm  Crime  Acts in violation of laws (formal norms)  Socially defined  Felonies  Punishable by more than one year in prison  Murder, rape, robbery  Misdemeanors  Punishable by less than one year in jail  Petty theft, public drunkenness Types of Crime  Street Crime  Face-to-face victim-offender interaction  White-Collar Crime  Crime committed by “people of high social position in the course of their occupation”  Often lacks a specific victim and direct interaction  Embezzlement  Stealing from one’s employer  Price fixing  Businesses keeping prices artificially high  Insider trading  Using privileged info for personal gain in the stock market  Consumer fraud  Selling products known as dangerous/defective  Trafficking Measuring Crime Rates  “Official” Crime Rates  FBI: Uniform crime report  Based on reported cases  Victimization Surveys  US Department of Justice  Designed to catch unreported crimes  93,000 reported rate vs. 330,000 survey cases in 1998  Self-Reports  Respondents are asked to describe criminal behavior Violent Crime: Murder  Rate has been falling since 1993  Murder victims:  78% are male  51% are African American  46% are white  Arrests made in 63% of all murders  78% of all murder victims knew the offender  23% of cases showed they were related Street Crime: Who are the criminals?  Age  18-24 years old  Gender  Males  Race and Ethnicity  Whites  Most “street crime” arrests involve white suspects Reasons for crime being down  Everyone’s in jail or rehabilitated  Dead  Greater community cohesion Theories of Crime, structural functionalism  Durkheim, The Functions of Crime  Affirms society’s norms and values  Help clarify right from wrong  Brings people together  Encourages social change  Merton’s Structural Strain  Anomie  Result of playing by the rules and failing to achieve success  Cloward and Ohlin (1966), Opportunity Structure  Deviance depends on access to illegitimate opportunities, as much as legitimate opportunities  Hirschi (1969), Social Control  Focus is on social bonds in stopping deviant behavior (attachment to people, commitment to conformity, involvement in conventional activities, belief in norms and values) Theories of Crime, Symbolic Interactionism  Sutherland, Differential Association  Focus on environment and social influences as causing deviance  Frequency and intensity  Becker, Labeling Theory  “Rule Breaking”  Focus is not on what people do, but on how others responds to and define those actions  Goffman, The Power of Stigma  Powerful negative labels that radically alter a person’s self- identity/concept Theories of Crime, Social Conflict  Marx’s Theory


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