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knes/hesc 342 ch 8

by: dy Notetaker

knes/hesc 342 ch 8 hesc/knes 342

dy Notetaker
Cal State Fullerton

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About this Document

ch 8
Stress Management
Karen Fazio
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by dy Notetaker on Sunday March 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to hesc/knes 342 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Karen Fazio in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 112 views. For similar materials see Stress Management in Kinesiology at California State University - Fullerton.

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Date Created: 03/20/16
Chapter  Eight:     Psychological  and  Spiritual  Relaxation  Methods     Elements  of  Relaxation   1. Mind-­‐Body  connection:  New  field  “psychoneuroimmunoendocrinology”   2. Altered  states  of  consciousness:    Runner’s  high,  alcohol/drugs,  mystical   states,  meditation,  yoga,  etc.   3. Enhanced  internal  locus  of  control:    Feel  empowered  to  make  adjustments  to   impact  your  future   The  Mind-­‐Body  Connection   n Stress  and  relaxation  are  meditated  through  bodily  experience.   n Thoughts  influence  feelings  and  degree  of  wellness.   n Practice  checking  in  with  your  bodily  experience     Altered  States  of  Consciousness   n Relaxation  techniques  alter  your  state  of  consciousness.   n Non-­‐ordinary  consciousness  may  facilitate  “flow.”   n Relaxation,  meditation,  or  spiritual  practice  may  alter  your  sense  of  self     Enhanced  Internal  Locus  of  Control   n Relaxation  techniques  are  proactive,  thus  give  an  immediate  sense  of  being  in   control.   n They  allow  you  to  think  creatively  and  change  externalized  thinking  into   taking  control  of  your  situation   Guided  Imagery   n The  conscious  use  of  the  imagination  to  create  positive  images  to  bring  about   healthful  changes  in  both  the  mind  and  body   n Involves  more  than  just  the  visual  sense;  it  often  employs  other  senses  as   well  as  the  use  of  music  or  a  person’s  voice   n Stimulating  the  body’s  immune  system,  fight  disease,  and  improve  overall   health   Types  of  Guided  Imagery   n Feeling  State  Imagery   – To  elicit  feelings  of  love,  care,  security,  and  happiness   n End  State  Imagery   – To  create  the  ideal  outcome  or  goal     n Physiological  Imagery   – To  evoke  healing  processes  of  the  body   n Metaphoric  Imagery   – Uses  symbols  to  connect  with  the  unconscious  mind  and  evokes   healing  from  the  core  of  your  psyche   n Psychological  Imagery   – Targets  a  person’s  specific  psychological  issues  by  offering  corrective   emotional  content   n Spiritual  Imagery   – Brings  forth  a  kind  of  being  that  transcends  ordinary  existence     How  to  Perform  a  Therapeutic  Imagery  Session   1. Assume  a  comfortable  position.   2. Close  your  eyes  and  create  a  relaxed  state  of  mind.   3. Follow  the  instructions  of  the  guided  imagery.   4. Return  to  normal  consciousness.   How  Does  Guided  Imagery  Work?   n Neurological  and  Biochemical  Connection  Theory  –  Brain  nerves  are   interconnected  with  endocrine  glands  and  immune  cells  through  hormones   and  cytokines   n Cognitive  Theory  -­‐  Changing  negative  thought  patterns  leads  to  a  reduction   in  autonomic  nervous  system  arousal  and  a  decrease  in  muscle  tension,   mood  disturbances  and  pain   n Cognitive  Distraction  Theory  –  It  is  impossible  for  the  brain  to  be   preoccupied  with  two  opposing  ideas  at  the  same  time.  The  brain  filters  out   certain  signals,  such  as  pain,  and  attention  becomes  focused  on  other   information,  such  as  the  guided  imagery  suggestions.   What  is  Autogenic  Training?   n The  use  of  autohypnosis:  hypnotic  state  (Vogt,  1900)   n Self-­‐generating  (performed  by  yourself)   n Develops  two  physical  sensations  (Schultz,  1932)   – General  warmth  in  limbs   – Heaviness  and  tingling  in  the  torso   n Uses  a  variety  of  exercises  to  achieve  this  response   n Vasodilation  and  muscle  relaxation  causes  a  positive  response  managing   stress   How  to  Do  Autogenic  Training   n Five  prerequisites  are  essential  to  succeed  (Schultz  &  Luthe,  1959)   1. High  motivation  and  cooperation   2. Reasonable  degree  of  self  control  and  direction   3. Maintaining  a  body  position  conducive  to  success   4. Reduction  of  external  environmental  stimuli   5. Attention  on  bodily  sensations   Six  Stages  of   Autogenic  Training   n Heaviness  of  the  arms  and  legs   n Warmth  throughout  the  arms  and  legs   n Sensations/warmth  and  heaviness  of  the  heart   n Breathing   n Sensations  and  warmth  in  the  abdomen   n Sensations  of  coolness  in  the  forehead   Benefits  of  Autogenic  Training   n Autogenic  training  can  help  with:   – high  blood  pressure   – asthma  and  eczema   – irritable  bowel  syndrome   – premenstrual  syndrome  and  menopause   – infertility   – diabetes  and  thyroid  disorder   – Raynaud’s  disease   – headaches  and  insomnia   – stress  and  stress-­‐  related  disorders   Meditation  &  Mindfulness   n Meditation  is  a  state  of  intense  concentration  and  inner  stillness,  as  well  as  a   mental  procedure  to  achieve  this  type  of  mental  state.   n Purposes  include  inner  peace,    mental  awareness,  emptying  the  mind,   achieving  enlightenment,  and  experiencing  true  reality   n Meditation:  Inner  concentration  and  stillness  (or  the  practices  to  promote   them).   n Mindfulness:  Relaxed,  open  attention  to  your  ongoing  experience.   Types  of  Meditation   n Restrictive:  focusing  consciousness  on  a  single  symbol,  object,  or  thought   in  order  to  prevent  distracting  thoughts  from  entering  the  conscious   mind.       n Inclusive:  opening  the  mind  to  all  kinds  of  thoughts  without  getting  bogged   down  in  any  one  of  them   n Transcendental  meditation   n Maharishi  Mahesh  Yogi  taught  this  form  of  meditation  in  the  West   n TM  is  based  on  the  use  of  a  mantra   n Purports  to  produce  a  restful  alertness  that  transcends  thinking  to  reach  the   source  of  thought,  the  mind’s  own  reservoir  of  energy  and  creativity   n Mindfulness-­‐based  stress  reduction  (MBSR)   n MBSR  is  a  highly  structured  program  teaching  developed  by  Jon  Kabat-­‐Zinn   n MBSR  consists  of  three  different  techniques:  (1)  body  scan,  (2)  sitting   meditation,  and  (3)  Hatha  yoga.   n The  program  usually  consists  of  interventions  and  homework  at  home  for  at   least  45  minutes  a  day,  6  days  a  week  for  8  weeks   n Visualization:  gazing  at  a  chosen  object  or  symbol  that  has  some  personal   meaning  and  then  closing  your  eyes  and  “see”  the  object  in  your  imagination   n Walking  Meditation:  a  form  of  moving  contemplation   Elements  of  Meditative  Practice   n A  quiet  setting.   n A  stable,  relaxed  position.   n An  object  of  focus  of  awareness.   n Passive  attitude  or  poised  awareness   Meditation  &  Life  Satisfaction   n Live  in  the  present  moment.   n Avoid  critical  judgments.     n Develop  acceptance.   n Slow  down.   n Trust  your  intuition  as  well  as  your  logical  thinking.   Practice  love  and  caring   n Spirituality  is  a  broad  term  that  represents  a  unique  quality  of  the   individual  that  is  associated  with  one’s  faith  in  a  supernatural  being,  a   search  for  meaning,  a  sense  of  connection  with  others,  and  a   transcendence  of  self     n Being  spiritual  contains  those  elements  associated  with  inner   qualities  related  to  the  soul  and  heart  of  the  person,  like  the  meaning   and  purpose  of  life,  compassion,  forgivingness,  and  love.   n Religion  is  a  narrower  concept  represented  by  devotion  to  the  beliefs   and  practices  of  established,  organized  religion  and  is  associated  with   a  system  of  beliefs  centered  around  the  concept  of  a  supernatural   being  or  force   n Healthy  religious  beliefs  and  spiritual  practices  are  associated  to   better  coping  with  stress  and  less  depression,  suicide,  anxiety,  and   substance  abuse  while  for  those  emotionally  vulnerable,  religious     beliefs  and  doctrines  may  reinforce  neurotic  tendencies,  enhance   fears  or  guilt,  and  restrict  life        


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