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soci 101 (summer) ch 1

by: dy Notetaker

soci 101 (summer) ch 1 soci 101

Marketplace > Fullerton College > soci 101 > soci 101 summer ch 1
dy Notetaker
Cal State Fullerton
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summer school
introduction to sociology
jessica coronel
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by dy Notetaker on Sunday March 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to soci 101 at Fullerton College taught by jessica coronel in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 149 views.

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Date Created: 03/20/16
CH 1 UNDERSTANDING SOCIOLOGY why study sociology • Knowledgeà better decisions • Create preventative measures (like taking birth control etc) • It happens often • Interesting • Learn about the “normal” by learning about the “odd” Sociology • Scientific study of social behavior and human groups • Different societies= different customs • Focuses: o How relationships= influence ppl’s attitudes and behavior § Society= helps mold a person o How society develops and changes overtime • In attempt to understand social behaviors, socialists rely on unique types of creative thinking • C. Wright Mills= describe such thinkings as the sociological imagination Sociological imagination- C wright mills • Awareness of the relation between an indiv and the wider society • Ability to view society as an outsider would • Looks beyond limited understanding of human behavior • Personal issuesà social issues Sociology and the social sciences • Science= body of knowledge obtained by methods based on systematic observation • Natural science= study physical features of nature and how they interact and change o Chem, bio, geology, physics • Social science= study social features of humans and how they interact and change o Anthro, psych, political science, economics Why study the influence society has on people’s attitude and behavior • Seek to understand ways people interact and shape society • Examine social relations scientifically o Global recession o Marital patterns o Recession impact on education Early thinkers Augute Conte = father of sociology • Systematic investigation of behavior • Coined term “sociology” Harriet Martineau • Study social behavior in Britain and US • Emphasized impact of economy, law, trade, health, and population on social problems (want to bring awareness) • Translated lots of comte’s work into English/ helped get his work out Herbert Spencer • Studied evolutionary change in society (look @ change overtime) Emile Durheim • Did not limit interests to 1 aspect • Behavior must be understood within the larger social context • Developed fundamental theses to help explain all forms of society • Religion and SUICIDE • “anomic” = loss of direction felt in a society when social control of indiv behavior becomes ineffective o total institutions (jails, military etc) à no control over what you’re doing o can be when you try to transition from total institution back into societyà have a hard time fitting in bc you’re use to being told what to do Max Weber • understand behaviorà learn the subjective meaning ppl attach to actions • understand what it means to them and why they did what they did • diff things= diff meaning to diff people • verstenen= understanding, insight • ideal type: construct for evaluating specific cases (like a model/ outline) objective= quantative= #’s, proven facts/ data- grounded/ no change subjective= qualitative= opinion based, can change (emotions, values, myths, etc) Karl Marx • society divided into classes that class in pursuit of different interests (owners vs working class) • worked w/ engles • Communist manifesto o working class= should overthrow existing class system • emphasize group identification and associations that influence 1’s place in society • à act different based on who’s around Modern Developments WEB DuBois • Black socialist assisted struggle for racially equal society • Knowledge= essential in combating prejudice • Focused on religion @ community level • “Double consciousness” o division of indiv’s identity into 2+ social realities o (what it’s like to be black in white Americaà need to be different person/ have diff behaviors etc (slang at home, professional outside home) Robert Merren • combined theory + research • developed explanation of deviant behavior • MACRO sociology= large scale phenomena or entire civilizations o Student SAT scores • MICRO sociology= stresses study of small groups often through experimental means o Teacher interactions w/ students • Micro influences macro Pierre Boudreu • Capital= $, wealth, powerà sustains indivs and fams from 1 gen to the next • Cultural capital o Noneconomic good reflected in knowledge of language and arts o Being aware/ knowing that ___ painted this • Social capital o Collective benefit of social networks o Who you know, how you articulate • Ppl w/ capital= edu on all levelsà go further in life 20 cent developments Charles Horton Cooley • used sociological perspective to examine face to face groups (when ppl actually interact in their presence) Jane Adams • combined intellectually inquiry + social service work + political activist • cofounded HULL HOUSE (for working women, poverty, like refuge place) major theoretical perspectives/ theories/ paradigms 1. functionalist--------à MACRO 2. conflict -----------à MACRO 3. symbolic interactionist --à MICRO socialist perspective= all 3 functionalist perspective • everything works together • emphasize way how society structures= maintains stability • Talcott Parsons o View society as vast network of connected parts o Each helps maintain the system as a whole o (like a bike; need all parts to function properly) • manifest functions o open, stated, conscious functions o intended and recognized consequences of an aspect of society o school intended to teach you à you learn • latent functions o unconscious/ unintended functions that may reflect hidden purposes o bullying, stress, meeting spouse • dysfunctions o elements/processes of society that may disrupt a social system of reduce it’s stability/ credibility conflict perspective • assumes social behavior is best understood in terms of conflict or tension between competing groups • conflict= essential for society or else you wouldn’t be where you are now • the Marxist view o conflict= part of everyday life in all societies o conflict theorists= interested in how institutions may melt maintain privileges of some groups and keeps others subservient o (those w/ more edu= go further, while those w/o edu= stuck) o need conflict so society can run smoothly • the feminist perspective o inequality in gender= central to all behavior and organization o often allied w/ conflict theory o proponents= tend to focus on MACRO level o broadened social behavior by extending analysis beyond male point of view interactionalist perspective • generalized about everyday forms of social interactions to explain society as a whole • humans= viewed as living in a world of meaningful objects • nonverbal communications: gestures, facials, postures • manipulation of symbols= seen in dress code • George Herbert mead o Founder of interactionalist perspective • Erving Geoffman o Dramaturgical approach= ppl are seen as theatrical performers o Ppl= constantly acting o Front stage= ready to perform (like a speech) o Back stage= what do to get to front stage (research, writing speech, etc) Sociological approach • Gain broadest understanding of society by drawing on all major perspectives, noting where they overlap/diverge • Each perspective= offers unique insights into the same issue • Researchers work= always guided by his/her theoretical view point Applied and clinical sociology • Applied sociology o Use soci w/ intent of yielding practical applications for human behavior and organization o Try to see outcome, hands on • Clinical sociology o Facilitating change by altering social relations or restructuring social institutions • Basic sociology o Seeks profound knowledge of fundamental aspects of social phenomena Developing a sociological imagination • Theory in practice • Research today • Thinking globally o Globalization § Worldwide integration of govt policies, cultures and social movements and financial markets through trade and exchange of ideas • Significant of social inequality o Social inequality § Conditions where members of society= differ in amount of wealth, prestige or power • Speaking across race, gender and religious boundaries • Social policy throughout the world


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