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EOC A HD REVIEWING THE BASICS 1 Why is all data stored in a computer in binary form Binary is the format that the computer understands not a programing language or a human language All instructions between hardware and software in a computer are reduced to a simple yes or no a state of on or off 2 What are the four primary functions of hardware Input processing output and storage 3 What are the two main input devices and two main output devices The two main input devices are the keyboard and the mouse The two main output devices are the monitor and the printer 4 What three things do electronic hardware devices need in order to function A method for the CPU to communicate with the device software to instruct and control the device and electricity to power the device 5 How many bits are in a byte Eight 6 What is the purpose of an expansion slot on a motherboard An expansion slot on a motherboard is used for an expansion card which enables a device that is not on the motherboard to communicate with the CPU 7 Which component on the motherboard is used primarily for processing The CPU central processing unit also called the processor 8 Name the two main CPU manufacturers Intel and AMD 9 Order the following ports according to speed placing the fastest port first FireWire eSATA USB eSATA FireWire USB 10 What are two other names for the system bus Possible answers Memory bus host bus front side bus external bus 11 What type of output does a SPDIF port provide High quality sound to an audio system 12 Why is an SSD hard drive more reliable under rugged conditions than an IDE hard drive Because the SSD drive has no moving parts 13 How is the best way to determine if a cable inside a computer is a data cable or a power cable Follow the cable from its source to its destination 14 List three types of ports that are often found coming directly off the motherboard to be used by external devices Possible answers Serial port parallel port USB port network port FireWire or 1394 port mouse port keyboard port SPDIF port sound port wireless LAN antenna port 15 What is the purpose of the SPDIF port The SPDIF port connects to an external home theater audio system providing digital output and the best signal quality 16 What is the most common type of memory module DIMM 17 What is the difference between volatile and nonvolatile memory Volatile memory is temporary and needs a constant electrical charge to hold data Nonvolatile memory is permanent and holds memory even when electricity is turned off 18 Of the two types of storage in a system which type is generally faster and holds data and instructions while the data is being processed Which type of storage is generally slower but more permanent Primary storage secondary storage 19 What technology standard provides for up to four devices on a system including the hard drive as one of those devices What are two common industry names loosely used to describe this standard PATA parallel ATA also called EIDE enhanced integrated drive electronics or IDE 20 What is the measurement of frequency of a system bus and CPU Which is faster the system bus or the CPU Frequency is generally measured in Hz MHZ or GHZ The CPU is faster than the system bus 21 Name three types of buses that are likely to be on a motherboard today Possible answers PCI Peripheral Component Interconnect AGP Accelerated Graphics Port PCI Express system bus 22 A power supply receives 120 volts of 7 power from a wall outlet and converts it to 33 5 and 12 volts of power AC DC 23 ROM BIOS or rmware chips that can be upgraded without replacing the chips are called Flash ROM 24 CMOS setup allows a technician to change con guration settings on a motherboard stored in CMOS RAM 25 Name three examples of secondary storage devices Some possible answers CD drive hard drive oppy drive DVD drive Zip drive Bluray drive 26 A hertz is cycle per second a megahertz is cycles per second and a gigahertz is cycles per second A hertz is one cycle per second A megahertz is one million cycles per second A gigahertz is one billion cycles per second 27 An AGP slot is normally used for an expansion card Video 28 How many sizes of PCI Express slots are currently manufactured for personal computers Four 29 Name the three purposes the motherboard ROM BIOS serves The BIOS is used to manage simple devices system BIOS the BIOS is used to start the computer startup BIOS and the BIOS is used to change settings on the motherboard CMOS setup 30 From where does CMOS RAM receive its power when the computer is not turned on CMOS RAM is powered by a trickle of electricity from a small battery located on the motherboard or computer case EOC A HD THINKING CRITICALLY 1 When selecting secondary storage devices for a new desktop PC which is more important a CDROM drive or a oppy drive Why A CD ROM drive because most software today is distributed on CD 2 Based on what you have learned in this chapter when working on a Microsoft Word document why is it important to save your work often Explain your answer using the two terms primary storage and secondary storage Because data is temporarily stored in RAM or primary storage which is volatile Ifthe power is lost all data in primary storage is lost In order to secure the data it must be copied from primary storage to secondary storage such as a hard drive or oppy disk which is nonvolatile or permanent storage 3 Most buses are 16 32 64 or 128 bits wide Why do you think these bus widths are multiples of eight Because everything in a computer is stored and processed in binary and 1 byte equals 8 bits 4 You purchase a new computer system that does not have amodem port and then you decide that you want to use a dialup connection to the Intemet What is the least expensive way to obtain a modem port a Trade in the computer for another computer that has a modem port b Purchase a second computer with a modem port c Purchase a modem card and install it in your system d Purchase an external modem that connects to your PC by way of a USB port Answer c Purchase a modem card and install it in your system 5 In this chapter a light bulb is used to demonstrate the binary concept used for computer storage and communication Give another example in everyday life to explain this binary concept Get creative Possible answer A water hydrant is either on or off It s difficult to measure the amount of water coming out of the hydrant but not difficult to decide if the water is off or on 6 If the CMOS battery inside your computer system died when you first turn on your system will you expect the system to boot up normally to the operating system level What information do you think the system would not have available for a successful boot No the system will not boot normally because the con guration information would not be available This information includes the type hard drive and oppy drive installed and the boot sequence 7 Which device is a solid state device a CD drive or a memory module Why A memory module is a solid state device because it has no moving parts REVIEWING THE BASICS 1 How many pins does the Pl connector have that uses the ATX Version 22 standard 24 2 What are the maximum dimensions for a motherboard that uses the MicroATX form factor 96 X 96 3 Which form factor is a smaller version of the MicroATX form factor FleXATX 4 Which form factor uses a riser card on the edge of the motherboard NLX 5 How many pins does the main power connector on a BTX motherboard have 24 6 Which type of case form factor is best for keeping a system cool BTX 7 Which type of computer case is most popular for desktop systems Midtower case 8 What is the normal voltage of house electricity in the US 110 volts to 120 volts 9 Hot wires in home wiring are normally colored and ground wires in computers are normally colored Black black 10 What is the difference between a transformer and a rectifier Which are found in a PC power supply A recti er is a device that converts alternating current to direct current A transformer is a device that changes the ratio of current to voltage A computer power supply functions as both 11 What are the ve voltages that can be produced by an ATX or BTX power supply Which voltage is seldom used 5 5 12 12 and 33 5 12 What device uses the 12V 6pin power connector Video card that uses the PCI Express Version 1 standard 13 What device uses the 12V 8pin power connector Video card that uses the PCI Express Version 2 standard 14 What is the purpose of the 4pin auxiliary connector on a motherboard To provide extra voltage for a processor 15 What is the purpose of the 4pin Molex connector Powers IDE drives 16 How do you determine the wattage capacity needed by a power supply Add up all wattage requirements for all devices that will use the power supply and then add an additional 30 17 Which one component in a highend gaming computer is likely to draw the most power Video card 18 Why is a power supply dangerous even after the power is disconnected Capacitors inside a PC power supply create the even ow of current needed by the PC Capacitors maintain their charge long after current is no longer present which is why the inside of a power supply can be dangerous even when power is disconnected 19 Which tool of a PC support technician is the most important tool to protect the system against ESD Ground bracelet 20 Which permanently damages a computer component damage caused by ESD or damage caused by EMI ESD 21 What is a simple way to detect EMI On an inexpensive AM radio tum the tuning dial away from a station into a lowfrequency range With the radio on you can hear the static produced by EMI Try putting the radio next to several electronic devices to detect the EMI they emit 22 What is an unintended highcurrent closed connection between two points in a circuit called A short or short circuit 23 What device protects a system against lighting strikes but does not protect against sags and brownouts Surge protector 24 What device protects a system against blackouts UPS 25 What two measurements are used to rate the capacity of a UPS VA and watts 26 What unit of measure is used to describe the amount of work a surge suppressor can do before it stops protecting the circuit from an electrical surge joule 27 Why is it important to have an indicate light on a surge suppressor So you can tell when the surge suppressor is no longer providing protection against a power surge 28 What are the two main types of uninterruptible power supplies Standby and inline 29 How does a smart UPS differ from one that is not smart A smart UPS can be controlled by software from a computer to allow additional functionality 30 What is the purpose of a POST diagnostic card To report errors at POST 31 When taking a computer apart why is it important to not stack boards on top of each other You could accidentally dislodge a chip 32 When assembling a system which do you install first the drives or the motherboard Drives 33 List four computer symptoms that indicate a faulty power supply Possible answers 0 The PC sometimes halts during booting After several tries it boots successfully 0 Error codes or beep codes occur during booting but the errors come and go o The computer stops or hangs for no reason Sometimes it might even reboot itself 0 Memory errors appear intermittently 0 Data is written incorrectly to the hard drive 0 The keyboard stops working at odd times 0 The motherboard fails or is damaged 0 The power supply overheats and becomes hot to the touch EOC A HD Thinking Critically 1 How much power is consumed by a load drawing 5 Awith 120 V across it 600 watts 2 You suspect that a power supply is faulty but you use a multimeter to measure its voltage output and nd it to be acceptable Why is it still possible that the power supply may be faulty Because problems with power supplies are intermittent they can come and go 3 Someone asks you for help with a computer that hangs at odd times You turn it on and work for about 15 minutes and then the computer freezes and powers down What do you do rst a Replace the surge protector b Replace the power supply c Wait about 30 minutes for the system to cool down and try again d Install an additional fan Answer c Wait about 30 minutes for the system to cool down and try again 4 When working on a computer which of the following best protects against ESD Why a Always touch the computer case before touching a circuit board inside the case b Always wear a ground bracelet clipped to the side of the case c Always sit a computer on an antistatic mat when working on it Answer b Always wear a ground bracelet clipped to the side of the case 5 What is a reasonable wattage capacity for a power supply to be used with a system that contains a DVD drive three hard drives and a highend Video card a 250 watts b 1000 watts c 700 watts d 150 watts Answer c 700 watts REVIEWING THE BASICS 1 Who are the two major manufacturers of processors Intel AMD 2 What are the four system bus frequencies used by current Intel processors 1600 1333 1066 and 800 MHz 3 What three sockets are currently used for Intel processors in motherboards for desktop systems LGA1366 LGA771 LGA775 and 478 sockets 4 What is the name of the memory cache that is on the same die as the processor L1 cache 5 What is the name of the memory cache that is closest to the processor die but is not housed on the die L2 cache 6 What is the name of the Intel technology that allows a processor to handle multiple threads at the same time HyperThreading 7 How many threads can a quadcore processor handle at once Eight 8 What is the name of the memory cache that is shared by cores in a multicore processor L3 cache 9 Which is faster SRAM or DRAM Why SRAM because it does not need to be refreshed 10 Which is the first computing technology used by a processor to support repetitive looping whereby a processor receives an instruction and then applies it to a stream of data that follows MlVIX Multimedia Extensions 11 Which computing technology SSEl SSEZ SSE3 or SSE4 better supports data mining applications SSE4 12 Which Intel processor family is better performing the Pentium family or the Core family The Core family of processors 13 Which AMD processor Turion or Phenom is designed for laptops Turion 14 What are the two major components of a processor cooler assembly Heat sink and fan 15 How many pins does the CPU fan header on a motherboard have 4 pins 16 If the power connector from the CPU fan has only three pins it can still connect to the 4pin header but what functionality is lost Adjustable speed control of the fan to lessen the noise in the system 17 What is the major disadvantage of using a peltier heat sink The drastic difference in temperature between the peltier s top surface and the bottom surface can cause condensation inside the case when the PC is turned off 18 Name three tools that can be used to rid the inside ofthe case from dust Can of compressed air blower antistatic vacuum 19 Why is it important to insert a processor straight down into a socket rather than sliding the processor in from the side or allowing it to tilt into the socket So the pins will not be bent 20 List three possible causes of a system that hangs or freezes at odd times Possible answers Overheating Processor is faulty Windows is corrupted Motherboard is faulty Power supply is failing Memory is failing Hard drive errors EOC A HD 1 N E Thinking Critically When overclocking a system what two problems are most likely to occur a Low memory errors b An unstable system that causes intermittent errors c Loss of hard drive space used by the overclocking virtual memory le d Overheating Answer b An unstable system that causes intermittent errors and d Overheating When a new computing technology is invented by Intel or AMD why must their processors still support the older and less efficient technologies Because older operating systems applications and hardware devices are built or written to use the older technologies You upgrade a faulty PCIe video card to a recentlyreleased higherperforming card Now users complain to you that Windows Vista hangs a lot and gives errors Which is the most likely source of the problem Which is the least likely source a Overheating Fquot Windows does not support the new card c The drivers for the card need updating d Memory is faulty Answer The most likely source is c The drivers for the card need updating Since the card is recently released it s unlikely that Vista does not support the card Therefore the least likely source of the problem is b Windows does not support the new card REVIEWING THE BASICS 1 What are five main categories of form factors used for motherboards ATX MicroATX FlexATX BTX and NLX 2 How many pins does the Intel Socket B have What is another name for this socket 1366 pins LGA1366 3 How many pins does the AMD socket AM2 have 940 pins 4 Which is a better performing Intel chipset the X58 or the P45 P45 5 Which part of the chipset connects directly to the processor the North Bridge or the South Bridge The North Bridge 6 What are the names of the two technologies used to install multiple video cards in the same system SLI and CrossFire 7 What are the two different voltages that a PCI slot can provide 5 volts and 33 volts 8 How does the throughput of PCI Express Version 11 compare to PCIe Version 1 How does PCIe Version 2 compare to Version 1 PCIe Version 11 and PCIe Version 1 have the same throughput PCIe Version 2 doubles the throughput of PCIe Version 1 9 What is the maximum wattage that a PCIe Version 20 expansion card can draw 300 watts 10 What new type of power connector on the motherboard was introduced with PCIe Version 10 How much power does this connector provide 6pin PCIe connector 75 watts 11 What new type of power connector was introduced with PCIe Version 20 How much power does this connector provide 8pin PCIe connector 300 watts 12 If you are installing an expansion card into a case that does not have enough clearance above the motherboard for the card what device can you use to solve the problem A riser card 13 What is the purpose of an AGP slot To hold a video card 14 Which is faster a PCI Express x16 bus or the latest AGP bus PCI Express x16 is about 4 times faster than the latest AGP bus 15 What is the purpose ofa CNR slot To use a small card to access a network 16 What is the likely color of the PS 2 mouse port on the rear of a computer Green 17 What is one reason to ash BIOS To add new features made available by the BIOS manufacturer or to attempt to solve problems with the motherboard 18 What is the easiest way to obtain the latest software to upgrade BIOS Go to the Web site of the BIOS or motherboard manufacturer 19 What can you do if the poweron password and the supervisor password to a system have been forgotten Use the jumpers on the motherboard to reset the passwords 20 Where is the boot priority order for devices kept In CMOS RAM 21 What is the difference between a hard boot and a soft boot A hard boot begins with powering up the system and BIOS performs POST and then loads the OS A soft boot begins later in the process power is not affected and BIOS does not perform POST 22 How is CMOS RAM powered when the system is unplugged By a coincell battery 23 Describe how you can access the BIOS setup program By pressing certain keys depending on the speci c computer and BIOS program during the boot process 24 If a USB port on the motherboard is failing what is one task you can do that might fix the problem Go to the motherboard manufacturer web site download and install updated drivers 25 What might the purpose be for a SATAstyle power connector on a motherboard To provide auxiliary power to PCIe cards THINKING CRITICALLY 1 Why does a motherboard sometimes support more than one system bus speed So that it can support different processors running at different speeds 2 Why don t all buses on a motherboard operate at the same speed Because not all devices to which the buses are connected transmit data at the same speed The speeds of different hardware components are evolving at different rates 3 When you turn off the power to a computer at night it loses the date and you must reenter it each morning What is the problem and how do you solve it The CMOS battery is dead and needs replacing 4 Why do you think the trend is to store configuration information on a motherboard in CMOS RAM rather than by using jumpers or switches Possible answers Because changing setup using jumpers or switches requires opening the computer case and BIOS setup is easier to change Because there are many more settings on today s newer motherboards that would require too many jumpers and switches V39 When troubleshooting a motherboard if you discover the network port no longer works What is the best and least expensive solution to this problem E Replace the motherboard Fquot Disable the network port and install a network card in an expansion slot 0 Use a wireless network device in a USB port to connect to a wireless network 3 1 Retum the motherboard to the factory for repair All the above solutions might be possible The least expensive and simplest solution is b Disable the network port and install a network card in an expansion slot 6 A computer freezes at odd times At first you suspect the power supply or overheating but you have eliminated overheating and replaced the power supply without solving the problem What do you do next E Replace the processor b Replace the motherboard c Reinstall Windows d Replace the memory modules e Flash BIOS Try the simple and least expensive things first Flash BIOS