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Date Created: 10/05/15
III Exam 2 review Lecture 2 Russia and Neighbors The Former Soviet Union A Russian Empire Czarist Russia prior to 1917 B Union of Soviet Socialist Republics USSR or Soviet Union 19171922 to 1991 C Russia and fourteen other countries since 1991 1 Still many economic and cultural ties among the various republics and Russia Russian Federation Russia largest and most populous of the new republics A Nearly twice the size of the United States B Approx 140 million people C Still wants to maintain in uence over as many of the former republics as possible D Struggling with results of over seventy years of economic mismanagement and environmental degradation under communists E Struggling with transition to democracy and to a free market economy now moving away from democracy F Current elected leaders Vladimir Putin a former KGB colonel is Prime Minister and Dmitry Medveded is President are becoming more autocratic and less democratic Putin is calling the shots though the president is supposed to have more authority G Many of the most pro table Russian operations were sold by the government to few Oligarches with nancial backing from criminal syndications in the years right after the Soviet collapse this sale has been questioned more recently but no legal action taken so far though a few years ago one of the richest of the Oligarches was arrested for taX evasion and his oil company the biggest and most profitable in Russia was been taken by the Russian government H Between 1992 and 1999 the Russian economy shrank 40 which was particularly tough on ineff1cient enterprises and the elderly on pensions I Economy grew at a moderate pace from 2000 to late 2008 but has suffered from the recent economic downturn J Lake Baykal Deepest freshwater lake in the world 5371 feet deep Russian Independence A Still over 100 nonRussian ethic groups within the Russian Federation some of which are clamoring for more autonomy or even independence B Chechnya has been the location of on and off wars since the Soviet Union collapsed terrorism such as attacks on a theater in Moscow a school in southern Russia and a couple of airliners a result C Enormous mineral wealth and a highly educated population though the population is shrinking and economic resources can only be fully and quickly developed with the help of foreign investors D Most foreign investors have backed away because of Putin s recent anti democratic and autocratic ways VI Exam 2 review E Corruption Index Corruption especially severe in former Soviet Union and much of developing world corruption undermines development and enforcement of environmental regulations 1 Corruption Index Functioning relatively rich democracies tend to have much less corruption Russia and Near Abroad Under state planning many environmental disasters ensued some Major Environmental Problems A Disposal of radioactive wastes haphazard and dangerous many areas can only be fenced off B Chernobyl Meltdown of reactor 4 radioactive isotopes all over Europe but severe in northern Ukraine southern Belarus and small area of western Russia tens of thousands of acres of land ruined for decades and thousands of people with health problems perhaps hundreds of deaths so far C Aral Sea Water diverted from two rivers for irrigation results in destruction of the once thriving shery much ruined soils contaminated aquifers many health problems and gradual disappearance of the Aral Sea 1 All jobs in the fishing industry all native fish species and most water fowl habitat lost since the early 1960 s Russia Environmental Issues A Water Pollution is the most serious concern 1 Less than half of Russia s population has access to safe drinking water 2 While water pollution from industrial sources has diminished because of the decline in manufacturing municipal wastes increasingly threaten key water supply sources and nuclear contamination could leach into key water sources as well 3 The head of Russia s environmental protection committee estimates that the cost of raising qualify of Russia s entire drinking water supply to official standards could be as high as 200 billion as of 2000 B Air quality is almost as poor as water quality 1 With over 200 cities often exceeding Russian population limits and is likely to worsen C Solid Waste generation has increased substantially due to adoption of Westem style consumption patterns D Hazardous waste disposal problems are extensive and growing E Nuclear waste and chemical munitions contamination is so extensive and costly to reverse that remediation efforts are likely to continue to be limited largely to merely fencing off affected areas F Siberian Tiger is an example of Endangered Wildlife of Russia Some Major Environmental Problems A Challenge of permafrost extreme engineering challenge three basic zones Exam 2 review 1 Continuous underlies virtually an entire area 2 Discontinuous underlies over 50 of an area 3 Sporadic Underlies less than 50 of an area B Permafrost permanently frozen ground especially common in Russia particularly Siberia VII Other Republics A Ukraine Second most populous republic with approx 46 million people 1 Very rich soils heart of fertile triangle 2 Rich mineral wealth esp iron and coal 3 Substantial steel industry 4 Politically still struggling to fashion a thriving democracy recent election finally put a prowestem leader in power through only after initial rigged vote was overturned by massive demonstrations and ultimately the Ukrainian Supreme Court 5 Very difficult transition to free market economy 6 Strong mafia and extensive corruption B Kazakhstan 2quotd largest Republic in area ninth largest country in the world slightly larger than Algeria and slightly smaller than Argentina which is slightly smaller than India 1 Approx 17 million people 2 Mostly desert and grassland President Nazarbayev won reelection to 7 year in 1999 when chief opponent was disqualified on a technicality 3 Very difficult transition to free market economy extensive corruption 4 35 ethic Russian VIII Russia and Other Republics Religions A Atheism was embraced during the Soviet Era and was promoted by the government today religion is making a comeback including introduction of various sects from outside the religion B Eastern Orthodox Dominant in Russia Ukraine Belarus Moldova Georgia and Armenia C Roman Catholic Dominant in Lithuania W Ukraine D Protestant Dominant in Estonia and Latvia E Islam Dominant in the other six independent Republics as well as in some of the small Russian territories in the northern Caucasus such as Dagestan and Chechnya III Exam 2 Review Lecture 3 Middle East and North Africa The Middle East and North Africa A Some Misconceptions Not all Moslem not all Arab not all desert not all oil rich Middle East B Predominantly Islamic Faith Only Israel Jewish and Cyprus Greek Orthodox are exceptions also signi cant Christian minorities in several countries 1 Islam has tremendous impact on culture of the region and therefore on the environment C Predominantly Arid and Semiarid Conditions though Coastal areas of Mediterranean Sea and Mountainous areas of Turkey Iran Afghanistan Algeria and Morocco are major exceptions Middle East and North Africa continued A Petroleum is a major resource and major part of economies for some countries in region especially those around the Persian Gulf B Thriving democracies rare in the region major exception is Israel though Turkey 39 y and Afghanistan s socalled 1 I u 1 has a y well f democracy seems confined to area in and around Kabul 1 Without true democracy it is often difficult to pass legislation related to the environment 2 Press freedoms are spotty without an unfettered press it can be very difficult to address environmental issues C Burning Oil Wells of Kuwait Gulf War of 1991 D Also during the first Persian Gulf War 1991 Iraq deliberately released 240460 million gallons of crude oil into the Persian Gulf from Kuwait this was the largest oil spill of all time Very Rich History A Cradle of several ancient civilizationsempires such as the Egyptian Egypt Mesopotamian Iraq Babylonian Iraq Persian Iran and Ottoman Turkey Empires B Cradle of three of the world s great religions l Judaism 2 Christianity 3 Islam Water in many ways water is more precious than petroleum as a resource in this area APotential ash points over water access 1 Nile river 2 Tigris River 3 Euphrates River 4 Sea of Galilee and Jordon River 5 Scarce and limited groundwater supplies VI VII Exam 2 Review 6 Desalinization an expensive alternative B The Dead Sea is declining 3 of water per year Saudi Arabia A Shoaiba desalination plant the largest in the world was nished in 2003 is located on the Red Sea is oil red and produces 150 million m3 of water per year as well as much electricity overall 70 of Saudi Arabia s drinking water comes from about 30 desalination plants Oil and Petroleum A OPEC organization of petroleum exporting countries 1 Most members in the Middle East or North Africa but some outside of the region 2 Notorious for squabbling over quotas 3 Generally try to prop up oil prices to maximize their pro ts 4 Cheating on quotas is so severe that sometimes called the organization of petroleum exporting cheaters B OPEC countries 1 Saudi Arabia 2 Iraq 3 UAE 4 Kuwait 5 Iran 6 Venezuela 7 Libya 8 Nigeria 9 Qatar 10 Algeria 11 Indonesia C Petroleum Countries 1 Caspian Basin 2 Russia 3 Mexico 4 China 5 USA 6 Norway DReserves billions of barrels 42 gallons each E Proven Oil Reserves 80 controlled by national oil and gas companies which usually are not very efficiently run and don t carry out very effective exploration programs Importance of Wealth VIII Exam 2 Review A The Haves esp Iraq Saudi Arabia UAE Iran Libya Kuwait Qatar to lesser extent Algeria and Oman 1 Usually only the leaders and their cronies bask in fabulous wealth so there is often resentment of leaders by population at large 2 Wise leaders use much of the wealth to try to diversify their economies ie Saudi Arabia UAE Oman 3 Less populous of these countries such as Kuwait UAE and Saudi Arabia have many thousands of workers noncitizens often treated as second class citizens and are mainly from India Pakistan Philippines etc B The Have Nots most other countries in region 1 Usually somewhat jealous of the Haves C International Community pays attention to what is happening in the region though usually more concerned with access to oil than human rights 1 Industrialized countries because of close ties to rich elite often blamed for the excesses of the rich elite like the Saudi Royal family 2 If industrialized countries get involved amp try to promote democracy amp human rights they are blamed for whatever goes wrong Most Populous Countries Greater than 60 million people 7 Turkey Iran amp Egypt AMost Industrialized Countries Turkey is the most industrialized of the predominately Moslem countries but Israel is the most industrialized westemized amp technologically advanced country in region m the chosen people The Torah rst five books of the Bible Other prophetic texts include most of the socalled by Christians Old Testament Strong moral code basics of which are embodied in the ten commandments Abraham amp Moses two of the most important patriarchs long history of prophets as well as famous leaders such as David amp Solomon The Promised Land the area that now includes most of Israel amp the occupied territories Christianity Founded by Jewish preacher rabbi our teacher names Jesus Strong moral code Salvation from sins through faith Jesus born approx 46 BC approx three year ministry ended about 30 AD when he was cruci ed by the Romans Many followers claimed Jesus had been resurrected after the cruci xion claim Jesus died to redeem followers from their sins XI XII Exam 2 Review New Testament a record of the life amp ministry of Jesus amp the writings of some of his early followers combines with Old testament Jewish texts to form the Bible Islam Founded by Muhammad a 40yearold Arab who lived in Mecca who had Visions from God via the angle Gabriel starting in 610 AD Visions from God recorded in the Koran the Islamic Holy Book Islam means submission as to Allah Muhammad indicated Islam was a continuation of the biblical faith of Abraham Moses and Jesus but indicated that Jews amp Christians had gotten some key facts wrong which Muhammad s revelations were meant to correct Jews amp Christians called people of the book Eventually opposed by the aristocrats in Mecca In 622 AD Muhammad moved to Medina In 629 AD he returned but conquered Mecca and shortly thereafter became the political amp religious leader of most of the Arabian Pen Reportedly in some visions Muhammad ascended to heaven from the Temple Mount in Jerusalem thus Jerusalem is the 3rd holiest city in Islam lst is Mecca 2quotd is Medina Muhammad died in 632 AD After Muhammad died there was a question of authority among his followers A Most Muslims today called Sunnis followed the leadership of a series of caliphs successors I Sunnis include about 83 of Muslims today B Some Muslims today called Shiites followed the leadership of Ali Muhammad s cousin amp soninlaw l Shiites include about 16 of Muslims today but are a large majority in Iran amp about 60 of people in Iraq note that Ali was killed in An Najaf in modern Iraq which makes that city the 43911 holiest city to Shiite Muslims C Five Pillars of Islam 1 There is no god but God and Muhammad is His messenger 2 Prayer five times daily at prescribed intervals facing toward Mecca 3 Charitable giving to those less fortunate 4 Fasting during the Holy month of Ramadan 5 Pilgrimage at least once in a lifetime to Mecca the haj j if they can afford it a stay away from food liquids smoking amp sex from sunrise to sunset Exam 2 Review D Strong moral code E Basic belief in salvation through good works a Early belief in spreading the faith through Holy war or Jihad b Within 150 years of death of Muhammad Islam had expanded east to the Indus River 713 AD west across North Africa amp through Spain to southern France Battle of Tours in 733 AD and north into present day Turkey c After fall of Constantinople now Istanbul in 1453 Muslim Ottomans dominated South East Europe into the late 1800 s Over 50 of Koran speaks of Jihad which radicles of today focus on to motivate followers 3 1 Environmental Geography 1 TEST 1 CH 1 Environment 1 the circumstances or conditions that surround an organism or group of organisms2 the complex of social or cultural conditions that affect an individual or community Environmental Science the systematic study of out environment and our place in it it is highly interdisciplinary integrating natural sciences social sciences and the humanities in a broad holistic study of the world around us Geographysometimes called the spatial science it covers many aspects of the physical and human worlds and is well positioned to encompass all the components of environmental science Agricultural revolution domestication of plants and animals allows accumulation of material goods enables greater population densities and rise of cities more con icts ensure people no longer in nature Industrial revolutionharness the energy of machines to replace human and animal power Germ theory resulted in the ability to understand and combat the spread of communicable diseases Green revolution development of high yielding hybrid varieties of various grains after WWII Genetic revolution manipulate genetic code of crops to improve yields shelf life etc since 1990 s People overpopulation too many people Consumption overpopulation people each consuming too many resources Malthusian scenario lost race between food supplies and mouths to feed Lifeboat ethics the question of whether the wealthy should rescue the drowning poor proponents argue that we should quit helping poor countries and quit accepting immigrants from those countries Crude birth rate number of births over per 1000 people in a population in a year Crude death rate number of deaths over per 1000 people in a population in a year Total fertility ratenumber of children to a woman to her entire life Emigration moving out of an area Immigration moving into an area Environmental Geography 2 Zero population growth when births and immigration just equal deaths Natural increase difference between crude birth rate and death rates Total Growth rate natural increase plus immigration and emigration Population density number of people per unit of area Demographic Transition stage 1 preindustrial high birth rates and high death rates low population and low growth stage 2 transitional high birth rates and declining death rates rapid population growth Stage 3 industrial declining birth rates and low death rates slow to moderate population growth Stage 4 postindustrial low birth rates and low death rates zero negative population growth Population pyramids diagrams of population age and gender structure pyramid shapedfor many less developed countries column shaped for many more developed countries MDC generally de ned as those with a per capita gross domestic product of more than 10500 per year LDC generally de ned as those with a per capita gross domestic product of less than 10500 per year Environmental Geography 1 TEST 1 CH 2 Understanding that people had misused nature is now new even Plato in the 43911 century BC complained that the soils of Greece had been severely degraded by human actions Four distinct stages 1 Pragmatic resource conservation Man and Nature by George Perkins Marsh is considered by many to be the wellspring of environmental protection in North America it warned of the ecological consequences of continued destruction and waste of resources on the American frontier Theodore Roosevelt his chief advisor Gifford Pinchot put resource management on an honest rational and scienti c basis for the rst time in US history 2 Moral and aesthetic nature preservation John Muir author and rst president of the Sierra Club argued that nature deserves to exist for its own sake regardless of its usefulness to us idea called biocentric preservation it emphasizes that fundamental right of other organisms to exist and to pursue their own interests Aldo Leopold pioneering wildlife ecologist wrote the book A Sand Country Almanac which contained many essays on our relationship with nature including the statement When we see land as a community to which we belong we may begin to use it with love and respect 3 Growing concern about health and ecological damage caused by pollution Negative effects of pollution have been recognized by some leaders over the centuries at least as long as the dangers of forest destruction Silent Spring by Rachel Carsonawakened the public to the threats of pollution and toxic chemicals to humans as well as other species speci cally looked at the impact of DDT Launched Environmentalism concerns are extended to include both environmental resources and pollution and now include issues as human population and now includes issues such as population growth Environmental Geography 2 David Brower Leader of the Sierra Club Friends of the Earth and the Earth island Institute introduced many techniques of modern environmentalism 4 Global environmental citizenship Global Environmentalism in this our attention shifts from questions of preserving particular landscapes or preventing pollution of a speci c watershed to worrying about the life support system of the whole planet eX global warming Yellowstone National Park rst national park 1872 Forest Reserve Act 1891 Sierra Club 1892 Timber cutting on large tracts of public lands banned 18911897 Lacey Act transport of live or dead animals across state and imports of some wildlife banned 1902 Reclamation Act promote irrigation and water development projects in the arid west 1903 US Forest Service 1905 Audubon Society 1905 Pure Food and drug act 1906 National Park System 19121916 First Earth Day 1970 EPA established 1970 First beverage bottle recycling law Oregon 1972 11 deposit States OPEC Oil Embargo 1973 Love Canal 1978 Three Mile Island 1979 Exam 2 review Lecture 1 Resources and Pollution Resources Anything we get from the environment to meet our needs and desires A Renewable Resources On a human time scale these resources are essentially inexhaustible 1 Examples Solar energy Wind energy Hydropower etc B Potentially Renewable Resources Can be replenished fairly rapidly hours to several decades through natural processes most ofthese are biological 1 Biological Diversity or Biodiversity The different life forms species that can best survive the variety of conditions currently found on Earth three kinds a Genetic Diversity variety in the genetic makeup among individuals in a single species b Species Diversity variety of species found in the different habitats on Earth c Ecological Diversity Variety of forests deserts grasslands streams lakes oceans wetlands and other biological communities 2 Sustainable Yield The highest rate at which potentially renewable resources can be used indefinitely without reducing its available supply 3 Sounds easier to achieve than it usually proves to be a One key is having an accurate understanding of the resource dynamics b Another key is acquiring enough reliable data to enable a rational decision c Another very key issue pertains to the poweraccessin uence of species interests 4 Environmental Degradation Occurs when a resources natural replacement rate is exceeded and the available supply begins to shrink a Examples Urbanization of productive land waterloggingsalt buildup in soil excessive erosion of topsoil deforestation depletion of groundwater livestock overgrazing grasslands reduction of biodiversity reduction of biodiversity pollution etc 5 CommonProperty Resources Owned by noone but are available to all users free of charge often leads to the following a Tragedy of the Commons the cumulative effect of many people trying to exploit a commonproperty resources eventually exhausts or ruins it example of the common pasture includes many other examples such as fisheries around the world C 39 39 or E 39 quot39 39 Exist in a fixed quantity inthe Earth s crust and thus theoretically can be completely used up on a time scale of millions or billions of years such resources can be renewed by geological processes 1 Energy Resources Coal oil natural gas uranium etc Exam 2 review 2 Metallic Mineral Resources Iron copper aluminum etc which can be recycled 3 Nonmetallic Mineral Resources Salt clay sand phosphates etc which are usually too dif cult or too costly to recycle 4 Economic Depletion of nonrenewable resources occurs when the costs of exploiting what is left of the resource exceed its economic value at that point we have ve choices a Recycle or reuse existing supplies if possible b Waste less c Use less d Try to develop a substitute e Do without and wait millions of years for more to be produced 5 Recycling Reuse and reserves a Recycling involves collecting and reprocessing a resource into new products ie glass bottles crushed to make new bottles etc b Reuse involves using a resource over and over in the same form ie glass bottles that are collected washed and re lled over and over c Reserves Known deposits from which a usable mineral can be pro tably extracted at current prices 11 Pollution Any addition to air water soil or food that threatens the health survival and activities of humans or other living organisms A Pollutants include solids liquids or gaseous byproducts or wastes produced when a resource is extracted processed made into products or used can also take the form of unwanted energy emissions such as excessive heat noise or radiation B Point Sources came from single identi able sources such as the smokestack of power plant the drain pipe of a meat packing plant or the exhaust pipe of an automobile C Nonpoint Sources Dispersed and often dif cult to identify sources such as runoff of fertilizers and pesticides into streams and lakes and pesticides sprayed onto the air or blown by the wind D Unwanted effects of pollutants include the following 1 Disruption of lifesupport systems for humans and other species 2 Damage to wildlife 3 Damage to human health 4 Damage to property 5 Nuisances such as noise and unpleasant smells tastes and sights E Three factors determine how severe the effects of a pollutant 1 Chemical Nature How active and halmful is it to living organisms ie some are carcinogens and some aren t Exam 2 review 2 Concentration the amount per unit of volume or weight of air water soil or body ie ppm ppb ppt etc 3 Persistence How long will it stay in the air water soil or body a Degradable or Nonpersistent Pollutants broken down completely or reduced to acceptable levels by natural physical chemical and biological processes Biodegradable complex pollutants broken down into simpler chemicals usually by microorganisms ie sewage etc b Slowly Degradable or Persistent Pollutants take decades or longer to degrade ie pesticides like DDT and most plastics c Nondegradable Pollutants cannot be broken down by natural processes ie lead and mercury 4 Solutions to Pollution two basic approaches a Pollution Prevention or Input Pollution Control a throughput solution it slows or eliminates the r J quot ofr quot often by quot 39 39 to less harmful chemicals or processes pollutants may be prevented from entering the environment by the three R s Reduce Reuse and Recycle b Pollution Cleanup or Output Pollution Control Involves cleaning up pollution after it has been produced some problems with this approach It is often only a temporary bandage as long as pollution and consumption levels continue to grow without corresponding improvement in pollution control technology Pollution cleanup often removes pollutants from one part of the environment and takes them to another part Once pollution has entered and dispersed in the environment at harmful levels it costs too much to remove
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