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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Evert DuBuque on Monday October 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEO105 at Central Michigan University taught by MarkFrancek in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 85 views. For similar materials see /class/218908/geo105-central-michigan-university in Geography at Central Michigan University.
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Date Created: 10/05/15
KEY TERMS FOR BIOGEOGRAPHY Vocabulary for Notes use wherever there is a 0 plains subtropical wet and dry fertile atmospheric pressure latitudes BIOGEO GRAPHY Summary The drstnhuhnn nfplants and ammals war the Earth ls largely rnclueneed hy the elrrnate ll d enhnehnn ennrnnrnental adaptahnns vane znnahnn lneal vananuns ennperahnn znngengraphre regluns and the rnanrhrnrnes wlll he enplaned Leammg emfa 3925 Obi eeu39ves Tn Successfully he Able tn Explain l The eharaeterrstres of the world39s flve majorblomes The eharaeterrstres of earth39s brogeoehernreal eyeles focuslng speclflcally on the hydrologre eyele lvnsenneepu39nns eserts are sandy 2 Tropreal rarnforest sorls are femle 3 Polar reglons recalle a lot ofpreclpltatlon Did anI Knnw39 There are sueh thrngs as cold deserts7quot 2 Tundra enrsts m New England7 lw39wdl LA L vegetahon types Solls provlde a medlum for plant growth andthe anlmals that depend on plants for sustenanee I Tropical ainforest Grassland I Tropical Savanna I Temperate Decinuous Forest 1 Desert l Temperate Boreal Forest Chaparral I Arctic and Alpine Tundra Sourcehttpwwwsciencehousemg WUli s1 ys39 39 Ma i39 J html bBJECTIVE 1 The characteristics of the world s ve major biomes Biome are the major regional r39 of and evident at a global scale The ora and fauna of the biome are well adapted to the climate and soils characteristic of a particular biome There are ve major biomes that will be discussed tundra forests savanna grasslands and desert The characteristics of each biome will be discussed in terms of location climate ora fauna and soils For an overview of the different biomes consult this movie A Tundra Biome note that the tundra biome can also occur in mountainous regions where temperatures are low Source mo waw worldbxomes compcsTundranome jpg B ForestB n quotin r 39 Mchxgan39sbxome Two otherforestbxomes exist boreal forest Chaparral andtropxcal bxomes see Woodward s 1997 Major Biomes othe World hag waw mnet eduswoodwarCLASSESGEOG235bxomesmtro html accessed 1 August 2007 Source http www worldbxomes combxomesiforesmmages htm m m n m m m m m u n a m m m m m u m c Savanna onme Pg Location FastAfn39ca thenano of l l l quot A L Rra il imate Tropical savannas or grasslands are associated with the climate Koeppen39s Aw Savannas are climate Mean monthly temperatures are warmerthan that ofthe Temperature Broadleaf 39 quot quot 39 m periodadry ea nn 39 I a l l L L Flora Continuous cover oftall grasses o en 3 to 6 feet tall Fire resistant trees are interspersed among the grasses with denser tree cover W discourage browsing ungulates leaves are o en thick and vwaxy to conserve moisture Fauna The world39s greatest diversity over40 ditferent species of c frica 39 39 39 imnala aelle buffalo wildebeest plains zebra rhinos giraffes elephants and kuthogs Camivores includelion Iennard cheetah 39 l l H Soils 39 39 which L 394 39 of organic matter soils tend to be relatively infertile for agriculture although grazin is viable as long as the number of animals per acre is limited Ultimately soil fertility varies as afunction ofbedrock and soil conditions isacnmmnn 39I 39 itl quot quot 39 39 dominant nil order D Grassland onme mxddle lamudes Koeppens BSk climate type typmally have between 10 and 20 mches ofprempxtauon a year wnh much ofthe precipitation Cool to 1 hot eold Winters thh warm 0 summers are to be E Desert Blome Loeauon eentered near 30 lautude The Sahara and Austrahan deserts would be examp es The west eoasts of eonunents between 20 and 30 lautude e g Baja Pemnsula AtaeamaDesert of cmle and the Namlb desert of South Afnca srtes ofcold oeean restrret the development of preerprtatron Ironlcally s me of dnest deserts are loeated nghtnear the oeean Deserts also form on the lee or slde of untarn ranges Death Valley andthe Pemvlan desert wouldbe examples Flnally deserts ean form m the of eonunents Usually m eombrnatron wrth the ramshadow effect dlstance from a ma or souree of morst an results m dry elrmates m the rntenor ofa eontrnents lsola ed from water sourees and olten m the ramshadow of hlgh mountarn ranges ples would be the Great Basln desert of the US the Austrahan and the Gobl d tof Mon olla Exam desert cllmate And elrmates Em and BM are those whlch average less than rnehes ofpreclpltatlon ayear Temperatures are vanable exceedlng 100 F on summer altemoon eoolrng offsu stantrally at mght ot deserts llke the Saharararely expenenee frost cold deserts lrke the Great Basln ofNevada may have prolonged penods ofbelow freezlng Flora shrubs adapted to tolerate extreme drought nant plants of deserts Leaves are small waxy and have Fauna are the doml shallow but extenslve root s stems to ather ralnwater Common adaptauons lnelude noeturnal foraglng absenee of sweat glands radlateheatandll ht coloredfurto hel re ectsun 110 g t are the em r ofthe desert A ack ofvegetatlve cover results m lmle humus Calel eauon 15 Sol Sells blome l the domlnan lrformlng process as excesslve evaporatlon can depole OBJECTIVE z The characteristics nf earth s hingenchemlcal cycles Amusing speci cally an ace hydrnlng39c cycle Under constmctlon Source Woodwards 1997MajorBlomesofthe Worldth A A Y August2007 Kev Terms for Seasons Vocabulary for Notes use wherever there is a or a in a table Circle to south to pole hours 21 rotation 10 hours 2 1 16 hours hrs of day 12 of 21 1 2 N 21 hours Circle pole pOIeCITCk 10 of Capricorn Circle perpendicular Chapters 1 and 2 examine some basis aspects of physical geography that carry through the entire course In your reading focus on the Earth Sun relationships and e Atmosphere For each chapter you ll need to complete the following CHAPTER 1 Introduction to the Earth Summary This course explores the four systems referred to as spheres the hydrosphere the biosphere the lithosphere and the atmosphere These four connected spheres establish the relationship between Earth and its prime source of energy the Sun Chapter one in the text gives anintroduction to the arth and its relation to the solar system how the geographic grid latitude and longitude is designed the relationship of the sun and the Earth and the system of telling time around the World It is important that you understand the system of latitude and longitude and the Way the seasons change with the movement of the sun s mdiation during the year These are important concepts that will serve as the basis for understanding later chapters Image source Earth observatory mp Heanhobsemwg nasa govNewsroomBlueMarbld cited 19 July 2006 Objectives To Successfully be Able to 1 Explain the cause ofthe seasons 2 Compare daylength and subsolar point location for the rst day of spring summer fall and winter 3 Analyze the impact of axral tilt on temperature Misconceptions 1 Our seasons result from varying distance between the earth and the sun 2 The movement of the sun from horizon to horizon gives us day and night 3 We can predict to the minute when the sun will riseset 4 Alaska gets 6 months of24 hr winter darkness 5 The sun rises due east and west in Michigan OBJECTIVE I explain the cause of the seasons amp In the space below write what39s unusual about this picture Introductory Define the following Rev olution Rotation Axis Draw a diagram distinguishing revolution from rotation What gives us day and night The ofthe earth on its axis Circle of illumination Aphelion E Perihelion E Plane of ecliptic an imaginary plane the cuts through the equator of the and the of the sun What causes the seasons The seasons are NOT caused by earth sun distance The earth is tilted on on its axis as it revolves around the sun Sometimes in earth39s orbit around the sun the Northern Hemisphere is tilted toward the sun This brings us Sometimes in the earth39s orbit around the sun the Northern Hemisphere is tilted away from the sun This brings the subsolar point to the Southern Hemisphere and brings us winter Spring and fall result when axial tilt is negligible Wiley Subsolar point where the sun s rays strike at 00 to the earth s surface to the earth s surface This is the most direct angle that s ine can reach the earth If you were in a location experiencing the subsolar point you would find that the sun would be directly overhead at solar noon OBJECTIVE 2 compare daylength and subsolar point location for the rst day of spring summer fall and winter Signi cant points and parallels associated with the seasons Using a globe complete the table below Cancer spring summer fall Winter When is the first day of On What range of latitude does the circle of illumination E Shlnesanta Barbara my Cuuege Where is the subsolar point located How many hrs of daylight occur for points north of 66 r r 9 9 12 N and for points located 39 39 39 39 south of 66 12 S Will the sun ever be directly overhead Ehere in lLichigan Objective 3 analyze the impact of axial tilt on temperature 1 Day length in Michigan In the winter day length in Michigan is about hours In the summer day length in Michigan is about hours Where does the sun rise and set during various times of the year Charles Burrows East Rampapo High School E 2 Concentration of Sunli ht University of Illinois How would this shadow look here in Michigan E A On the first day of winter the sun in Michigan rises in the and sets in the At solar noon the sun reaches an altitude of about degrees B On the first day of summer the sun in Michigan rises in the and sets in the At solar noon the sun reaches an altitude of about degrees C B On the first day of spring or fall the sun in Michigan rises in the and sets in the At solar noon the sun reaches an altitude of about degrees These University of Oregon animations depict how soil moisture vegetation infrared energy and runoff respond to seasonal variations in axial tilt E Using the Analemma to determine sun39s noontime altitude for any location or quot quot date on earth Procedure Locate the latitude of the city in question i 2 Using the analemm a determine the latitude of subsolar point for the date in question 3 Determine the degrees of latitudinal difference between 12 If 12 are in the same hemisphere subtract if 12 are in different hemispheres add 4 Subtract answer from 3 from 90 90 answer from 3 Using this procedure determine the noontime altitude for each season from Mt Pleasant 43 N Fairbanks AK 65 N and Sydney Australia 34 S
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