Week 7 Notes
Week 7 Notes HY 362
Popular in Russia-Soviet Union since 1894
Popular in History
This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Miller on Sunday March 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HY 362 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Margaret Peacock in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Russia-Soviet Union since 1894 in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 03/20/16
Week 7 The Terror o Question #1: What made the Terror possible? Systemic factors The culture of the Party Stalin was comfortable with torture and violence Soviet society in the 1930ss Culture of fear Stalin’s underlying psychosis The establishment of extra-legal organizations – a “machinery of despotism” The NKVD, 1 led by Yagoda, the Yezhov A Purge Commission led by Voroshilov o Managing the paperwork of everyone accused o The Special Sector of the Central Committee o A prosecutor-generalship by Vyshinsky o When did it start? The Ryutin Trial Ryutin is a remaining critic of Stalin in 1930s His survival has lasting repercussions o The legacy of the Ryuntin plot o Stalin learns some disturbing lessons The Assassination of Sergei Kirov (was it the teamsters, organized crime, Castro, or did Leonid Nikolaev act alone?) Dec 1, 1934 This becomes the crime of the century o Kinda like the Kennedy assassination Sparks mass arrests, provides a reason for the Terror 1936 Kamenev and Zinoviev Arrest Interrogation o The “conveyor belt” Confessions False promises Executions o The Terror in Full Swing Red Army falls to the Terror in 1937 The trials and executions aren’t announced in the press until after they had happened The consequences are significant for the state of Soviet readiness against the rise of Nazi Germany The “flower of the Red Army” along with much of their families met their deaths March 1938 trials Bukharin, Krestinsky o Remaining questions How much did Stalin believe? How much did everyone else believe? There’s no paper evidence anywhere so there should have been red flags Why did all these people confess? The Soviet mind, meaning it becomes impossible to speak out against it Whatever the Party demands, you give it Torture o Hit in stomach with sand bag, waterboarding, etc. o Hostages and threatening families The tsarist government never did this Self-preservation o Maybe you’ll get a lighter sentence or save family even if you couldn’t save yourself Why did the state need these confessions? Make it look legitimate since they have no other evidence Stalin wanted to destroy his opponents politically, morally, and historically o Wipe them out of history If they can get enough confessions, people will start to buy into it o Scope 2-3 million, most communist rank and file, many who fall outside of the Party, the Red Army, families, children 2/3 dead by 1940 Absence of confession would make it difficult to find fresh victims Stalin needs to break the truth Stalin and Trotsky are only party leadership that survive past 1940 o One last question (well, two): Who is responsible? What does it all mean? Stalin or Russia? NKVD going beyond their quota Why did the Terror happen? The larger impact/meanings of the Terror? To explain why the Utopia wasn’t happening scapegoat
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