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by: Clemens Kreiger

GeneralBiology BIO101N

Clemens Kreiger
GPA 3.76


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Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Clemens Kreiger on Monday October 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO101N at Central Michigan University taught by PeterKourtev in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see /class/218916/bio101n-central-michigan-university in Biology at Central Michigan University.


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Date Created: 10/05/15
Biological Chemistry H He Li Be B N o F Ne Na Mg Al Si P 8 cl Ar K Ga Sc Ti V IGr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Bu Rh Pd Ag W In Sn Sb Te I Xe Gs Ba La HI Ta W Re Us If Pt Au Hg TI Pb Bi Po At Rn Fr Ra Ac Rf Db Sg Bh Hs IVIt Uun Uuu Uuh Uuq Uuh Uuo Ce Pr Nd PmlSm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Erle in 39Lu Th Pa u NplPu Am Cm Bk Ct Es leMd No Lr Some basic chemistry key terms Atoms Molecules Isotopes Covalent bond Ionic bond Hydrogen bond Hydrophilic Hydrophobic Hydrophobic interactions Elements atoms and compounds Elements are substances that cannot be broken down into other substances An atom is the smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element Atoms of the same or different elements come together to form molecules Compounds are molecules made of the atoms of different elements What are atoms made of Nucleus 4 Cloud of negative charge 2 electrons b 2 6 Protons Nucleus 2 O Neutrons 2 e Electrons Atoms are kept together in molecules by chemical bonds What is a chemical bond It s an interaction between atoms that allows them to stay close together resulting in the formation of a moleculecompound What kinds of bonds are there Depends on how electrons are shared Ionic bond Outer shell Outer shell has 1 has 7 electron electrons Na GI Sodium atom Chlorine atom Covalent bond Name molecular Electron Structural Spacefilling Ballandstick formula configuration formula model model HH 39 03 H d l 39 gangs Slngle bond OO 0r0 Double bond m W IlethanecH4 H il H 9amp9 Oxygen gas02 Hydrogen bonds slightly slightly slightly Hydrogen bonds Hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds Hydrophilic usually charged can interact wi h water usually dissolves in water easily Hydrophobic usually neutral cannot interact with water usually does not dissolve in water easily or at all What are some examples The same molecule can have hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts especially if molecule is large Water key concepts Polar molecules Cohesion Adhesion Heat Solution Solvent The water molecule is dipole slightly slightly Water molecules stick together and to other polar molecules W 3 Hydrogen bond What are the implications for life Ad hesioncohesion What are the implications for life lce density Hydrogen bond Liquid water Ice Hydrogen bonds Stable hydrogen bonds constantly break hold molecules apart and retorm making ice less dense than water What are the implications for life What are the implications for life Heat storagerelease Aqueous solutions Because of its bipolar molecule water is an excellent solvent most chemical processes in biological systems happen in aqueous solutions Ion in solution Salt crystal Biological molecules Key concepts Carbon chemistry Carbohydrates Monosaccharides Polysaccharides Amino acids Polypeptides Peptide bonds Nucleotides ATCG Nucleic acids Primary secondary tertiary abd quaternary structure Carbon chemistry Carbon atoms can make up to 4 covalent bonds have 4 electrons that can be shared Bonds can be single or double Bonds can be between C atoms or between C and other atoms This features allow for a incredible diversity of carbon organic compounds Carbohydrates Have the general formula CHZOX Monosaccharides Disaccharides Polysaccharides Monosaccharides are Glucose fructose etc The simplest carbohydrates The main source of energy for most cells including the ones in human bodies Disaccharides On to Glucose Glucose a Maltose Polysaccharides Glucose 5 39 mmm a L 5 quot Starch granulesin M r 39 SEER potatotubercells L iiiIii i Glycogen r 3 granules in muscle a tissue b Elycng erf Celluloselihril in I N 1 aplanlcellwall 0 x 0 Cellulose aquot molecules sb wn 0 mQ39wmmv I I xx quotx 1 I I c Cellulose Lipids Hydrophobic compounds Two of the most common lipids in living cells are fats steroids Fats also known as triglycerides are made of glycerol and fatty acids Fatty acid Glycerol a A dehydration reaction linking a fatty acid to glycerol b A fat molecule There are two main kinds of fatty acids therefore two kinds of fats Saturated Unsaturated Saturated fats All three of the fatty acids attached to the glycerol are saturated Because the fatty acids are packed these are usually solid at room temperature Animal fat is usually saturated Because they tend to be sold they can form deposits on blood vessel walls causing cardiovascular problems Unsaturated fats One or more of the three fatty acids is unsaturated meaning it has at least one double bond Because of the unsaturated acid they can t be packed so well and hey are usually liquid at room temperature Plant fats but not tropical plants are usually unsaturated Because they are not solid unsaturated fats cannot form plaques on blood vessels as much as saturated ones Steroids What do steroids do CH3 CH3 Cholesterol is part of cell membranes There are a lot of hormones that are part of Ho the steroid family for example sex hormones Cholesterol 0 H0 Testosterone A type of estrogen In most organisms there are 20 different Proteins amino acids that make up proteins Amino Barboxyl group group P v Ilctlii 2 1 Transport proteins 1 b Storage proteins a Structural proteins Proteins have 4 levels of structure group group Primary structure the sequence of amino acids in the proteins Pr ins are Ote Secondary structure regular arrangements of therefore Amman Amimcid polypeptides amino acids helical type structures Dehydration reaction Tertiary structure folding of the molecule into a globular shape Quaternary structure 2 or more polypeptides come together Peptide bond Protein denaturation A process during which proteins lose their secondarytertiary structure What is an example of denaturation The instructions for building proteins are nucleic acids In Sugarphosphate backbone Nucleotide a DNA strand polynuoleotide b Double helix There are two kinds of nucleic acids DNA genes RNA messages We will discuss nucleic acid structure in detail when we get to genetics Biological molecules in our diet There are certain things we need to take into our diet because we can t make them or we need as a source of carbonenergy Carbs We need carbohydrates as a source of energy Are low carb diets good Yes and no Why are carbohydrates often called empty calories Fats We need to have fats in our diet because we cannot synthesize all of the fats we need by ourselves We mos ly need to take in small amounts of unsaturated fats We can synthesize our own cholesterol but usually we get about half of what we need from diet What we need to watch for is excessive intake of fats and cholesterol Steroids What are synthetic anabolic steroids Steroid use can cause a number of health problems Why can synthetic steroids cause infertility They look I ke sex hormones but are not so the body gets tricked into not producing enough sex hormones Proteins We need to include proteins in our diets because there are several amino acids usually called the essential AA that we cannot synthesize by ourselves We need variable sources of protein as not all amino acids are present in equal amounts in different proteins All organisms on Earth have the same chemical makeup From viruses through bacteria fungi plants animals and humans All have proteins All have the same 20 amino acids All have nucleic acids All have the same 5 basic units making nucleic acids etc The common chemical makeup of all life on Earth is a very strong evidence that all living things on our planet share a common ancestor


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