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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Clemens Kreiger on Monday October 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO334 at Central Michigan University taught by PeterKourtev in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see /class/218918/bio334-central-michigan-university in Biology at Central Michigan University.
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Date Created: 10/05/15
Soils and Global Change A Soils and greenhouse gases A1 Quick intro to greenhouse gases A2 What are the main greenhouse gases and how strong is their effect A3 Anthropogenic effects on greenhouse gases CH4 PPb Year 1600 1800 2000 1750 1500 1250 1000 C02 mm 750 N atu ral glacialinterglacial range 500 250 A4 How are greenhouse gases related to soils A41 C02 A42 CH4 A43 N20 380 360 340 320 300 280 Natu ral glacial i nterglacial range 1600 1800 2000 r A5 What is the possible role of soils in climate change A51 Soils as sources of greenhouse gases 1 Agriculture 2 Rice growing 3 Fertilization A52 Soils as sinks for greenhouse gases 0 Some options are 1 P9 6 7 Some problems are 1 2 An example of how management can succeed is rice growing in China B Soils and the global food supply 31 Trends in the growth of the human population Population billions 8000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 1000 2000 80 00 30 30 30 AD AD 32 How can we feed the entire human population 1 2 33 How much soils is there left for agriculture 1 0199 BA Trends in the amount of cropland per person in the world Cropiand Per Capita Africa NEG America Eumpe Wage pawn 1 2 hectares parpersrm L2 ireclaret per Mason 1 0103 110 14 02 0 1 mm 1980 39 13 19W 39 39 3919 549 America USSR former 1 2 hectares per person tinctures pornEmmi 1 A no LE n V hl I12 2 1951 mo 1an m1 East Region a Wmiri Resources Institute Soiree and Agriculture Urganizalinn orthe United Nations 1933 35 Why are we losing soil 1 2 3 C Saltaffected soils C1 How do soil become saltaffected o What causes salinization o Naturally salt affected soils 0 Anthropogenic driven salinization C2 Why are saltaffected soils undesirable O 0 C3 How do we measure salinity C4 How are soils classi ed based on salinity 1 The sodium adsorption ratio 2 Classification of soils C5 Reclaiming saltaffected soils 0 General strategy 0 Specific strategies Soil water part 1 A Why is soil water important A1 Soil properties that depend on water content B Water chemistry 31 What is the structure of water molecules 32 Interactions between water molecules and other molecules 0 Hydrogen bonds 0 Cohesive bonding 0 Adhesive forces 0 Surface tension C Movement of water in capillaries WORK IN GROUPS OF TWO TO ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS 0 The generalized formula of water rise in capillaries is o The the radius the the water rise will be Why 0 The the radius the the rise will be Why 0 What are the implications of the above two statements for capillary movement in soils that have different texture clay vs sand vs loam Can you draw a graphs that shows how water will move through capillary rise in clay sand loam D Water potential concepts D1 What is water potential 0 What is the difference between kinetic and potential energy 0 Why is potential energy important 0 So how do we then define soil water potential D2 What determines the water potential of soils 0 Generalized formula for water potential 11 Ilg Im lls llp 1 where 119 is the potential Ilm is the potential 119 is the potential 1117 is the potential 0 Gravitational potential 0 Pressure potential What is pressure potential Hydrostatic potential Matric potential 0 Osmotic potential c To summarize D3 How is water potential expressed Energy per volume of water which is the same as pressure s0 Pascals Pa Usually is in the thousands of pascals kPa