Chapter 7 Psych Notes (Part 1)
Chapter 7 Psych Notes (Part 1) PSYCH 101
Edinboro University of Pennsylvania
Popular in Intro to Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julia Kramer on Sunday March 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 101 at Edinboro University of Pennsylvania taught by Ms. Frambes in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at Edinboro University of Pennsylvania.
Reviews for Chapter 7 Psych Notes (Part 1)
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 03/20/16
Chapter 7 Notes 7-1 Basic Functions of Thought Thinking involves 5 main operations or functions: 1. Describing 2. Elaborating 3. Deciding 4. Planning 5. Guiding These functions can be organized into a circle of thought 1. The cycle begins w/ our sensory systems taking in information from the world, perceptual systems then describes and elaborates on the info, which is then used to makes decision, formulate plans, and act. The cycle begins again as our actions change the world and we receive new info 7-1a The Circle of Thought Some psychologists seek to analyze the circle of thought and do so by examining the individual functions as if they were part of a computer processing system Information-processing system - receives info, represents, the info w/ symbols, then manipulates the symbols o In this system, thinking is defined as the manipulation of mental representations 1 First stage: information reaches the brain through the senses 2 Second stage: you perceive and recognize the info Consciously elaborate information using the short-term and working- memory processes You also think about the new info in relation to info stored in your long- tern memory 3 Third Stage: decide what to do with info Either store info or act If you decide to act, you formulate plans at this stage 4 The Fourth and Fifth Stages: the action is carried out Your action usually affects the environment, providing new information that is "fed back" "Automatic" Thinking The circle of thought occurs so rapidly that we may only be aware of the incoming info and our quick reaction response The processes in which this occurs are thought to be virtually automatic 7-1b Measuring Information Processing Psychologists studying mental chronometry reasoned that measuring reaction time would give an idea of how long it takes for the circle of thought to complete one cycle Mental chronometry - the timing of mental events Reaction time - the time elapsing between the presentation of a stimulus and the appearance of an overt response to it Several different factors affect reaction times Complexity - the more options in a set of stimuli, the longer the reaction time Expectancy - people respond faster to stimuli that they expect Stimulus-response compatibility - if the relationship between a set of stimuli and possible responses is natural or compatible, the reaction will be faster Speed-accuracy trade-off - if you attempt to respond quickly, errors increase Neuroimaging has also been used to analyze mental events more directly Positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and other techniques are used to watch the activity in the brain during information processing Has shown that when a task is new, the frontal lobe is active, Other studies have shown that the frontal lobes are especially important for decision-making and problem-solving When the task was well learned, activity in the hippocampus increased Suggests that the subjects were drawing from memory instead of continuing to struggle w/ problem-solving 7-2 Mental Representations: The Ingredients of Thought What are thoughts made of? 7-2a Concepts Concepts - the categories of objects, events, or ideas with common properties Some are visual and concrete, i.e. "round" or "red" Others are more abstract, i.e. "truth" and "justice" Formal concepts - clearly define objects or events by a set of rules and properties Every member of the concept has all of the concept's defining properties and nonmembers do not Natural concepts - lack a fixed set of defining features Instead have a set of typical or characteristic features and members don't need to have all of them Prototype - a member of a natural concept that possesses all or most of its characteristic features Natural concepts are used more frequently in the real world while formal concepts are more confined to the laboratory 7-2b Propositions Proposition - a mental representation that expresses a relationship between concepts They are general ideas that can be conveyed in any number of specific ways 7-2c Schemas, Scripts, and Mental Models Schemas - generalizations that we develop about categories of objects, places, events, and people. Help us understand the world Scripts - mental representations of familiar sequences of activity Shape you interpretation of events What to do in certain events Helps you understand stories about events Mental models - sets of propositions that represent people's understanding of how things look and work As info about the world becomes available, our mental models become more complete Excellent guides for thinking about and interacting with the world However, if these models are wrong, we are likely to make mistakes 7-2d Images and Cognitive Maps Images - mental representations of visual info We manipulate these images in a way that is similar to manipulating objects themselves We also create mental images that serve as mental models of descriptions we hear or read Cognitive map - a mental model of familiar parts of your world i.e. Allows you to navigate your home in the dark with few or no collisions with walls or furniture 7-3 Thinking Strategies Do people always think logically? Reasoning - the process through which we generate and evaluate arguments, as well as reach conclusions about them 7-3a Formal Reasoning Formal reasoning (logical reasoning) - the process of following a set of rigorous steps intended to reach valid, or correct, conclusions Algorithms - systematic methods that always reach a correct solution to a problem if a correct solution exists Logic -a set of statements that provide a formula for drawing valid conclusions about the world Logical reasoning can fail because assumptions are wrong or because the logic applied to those assumptions is wrong 7-3b Informal Reasoning Informal reasoning - the process of evaluating a conclusion based on the evidence available to support it Also known as inductive reasoning - the goal is to induce a general conclusion to appear on the basis of specific facts or examples Heuristics - mental shortcuts or rules of thumb Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman have described 3 potentially problematic heuristics: Anchoring heuristic - a shortcut in the thought process that involves adding new information to existing information to reach a judgment Representative heuristic - a mental shortcut that involves judging whether something belongs in a given class on the basis of its similarity to other members of that class Availability heuristic - a mental shortcut through which judgments are based on information that is most easily brought to mind 7-4 Problem Solving What's the best way to solve a problem? 7-4a Strategies for Problem Solving Psychologists have identified a variety of strategies that people use when solving a problem Ex. When a problem is difficult it can be helpful to "incubate" it by setting it aside for awhile As a result a solution may suddenly appear Means-end analysis Strategy involving continuously asking where you are in relation to your final goal and then deciding on the means by which you can get closer to that goal Also known as decomposition A second strategy is working backward Similar to starting at the twig of a tree and working backwards through the branches to the trunk, to the base Analogies - similarities Another strategy is finding analogies between "today's problem and the others you have encountered before"
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'