Popular in Course
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Myah Bednar IV on Monday October 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANT175 at Central Michigan University taught by SergioChavez in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see /class/218927/ant175-central-michigan-university in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Central Michigan University.
Reviews for ArchaeologyoftheAmericas
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/05/15
Ant 175 Notes 082409 Archaeology scienti c study of the biological and cultural aspect of people through their material remains in the past representing 99 of our ancestor s life Material remains Biology inherited EX Human bones DNA Age seX disease stress injuries and nutrition Culture learner EX Artifacts made or used by people Stone tools ceramics temples houses and food The Importance of Archaeology 1 The Americas as an independent lab to study human behavior in isolation 2 Contribution by ancient native Americans 3 The changing environment and human adaptations biocultural 4 War and violenceLeamed or inherited in genes 5 Extraterrestrial in uences 082609 Osteology Study of bones ILium Pelvis on males narrow or straight Supra orbital ridges front of skull Nuchal Crest 7 Back of skull Females rounded Males have a bump Mastoid Process 7 near ears Males thick round and large Females thin and small Harris lines lines on the bones showing malnutrition Skull sutures Age Cracks in the skull General Anthropology study of the biological and cultural aspects of people in time and space Archaeology scienti c study of people in the past learned Ethnology Analysis and comparison of living societies learned Linguistics study of languages roots origins learned Physical Anthropology biological aspects of human population inherited 082809 Characteristics of general anthropology 1 Holistic view of humans 2 Work and research is done in the eld go to source 3 Relativistic view of people objective study a The opposite is ethnocentrism Kinds of Archaeology wwwprenhallcomfagan l Prehistoric 99 primary source of information of all human past life in the world or history without writing in each continent and region 2 Historical using the material remains to complement and clarify the written records EX French and British forts in Michigan slavery the industrial revolution textile factories 3 Classical to supplement the Greek and roman document in Greek and Latin Languages 4 Biblical using the Bible and other contempory documents in the near east as guides farm tools trade ethnic groups 5 Underwater Archaeology recovery and study of shipwrecks in lakes and oceans of the world 6 Ethno or living Archaeology study of traditional and modern societies using 2 basic archaeological assumptions a Material culture behavior b Material remains are more honest and accurate indicators of a way of life 7 Conservation archaeology or cultural resource management 7 archaeological remains are nonrenewable resources and in danger or destruction Legal basis of their protectionconservation a Federal legislation national historic preservation act b National environmental policy act 1969 8 Experimental archaeology Making or replicating ancient artifacts like ceramics or stone tools construction of pyramids to understand how they were made using ancient technologies a The making of blades using a volcanic glass called obsidian which is 100 times sha1per than steel scalpels under the scanning electron microscope 090209 Obtaining the archaeological evidence Finding recovering and studying material remains through exploration and excavation 1 Exploration a Location of sites ecologicalnatural resource studies consulting written documents asking informants sites are also found by accident remote sensing involving air photos and subsurface detection using the magnetometer and radar equipment b surface survey prelim Site identification Then a systematic surface collection by recording their location on a grid to get information on the size and type of site 2 Excavation systematic destruction and reconstruction a recovery of material remains artifact any object made or used by people arrowheads ceramics culturally related materialsfauna ora macro and micro zoologists and botanists can determine wild and domesticated species of fauna and ora Pollen studies Palynology serve to identify species and reconstruct climate 2 Human remains skeleton sex age nutrition diseases stress injuries Coprolites human shit allowing the identi cation of sex hormones and ancient diet documenting the context of remains the association and provenience of remains to determine activities and dates burial habitation quarry temple sites Preservation of Ancient Remains F agan 203214 nonorganic slower decay stone metal clay organic fast decay bone weed textiles depending on the following conditions 1 very dry conditions deserts caves very good organic preservation 2 very wethumid jungle fast organic decay 3 arctic cold very good organic preservation 4 pH of the soil hydrogen ion concentration 0 7 l4 Acid neutral alkaline 5 Flooded and under water conditions excellent organic preservation 9909 The Dimension of Space Fagan 8690 1 The Law of Superposition or Stenos Law the oldest strata and contents are always at the bottom of the excavation And the youngestmost recent at the top exceptionprehistoric digging 2 Law of Association or context refers to the fact that all the remains in a single level or stratum are contemporary or deposited at the same time exceptions prehistoric mixing and reuse of old items such as artifacts saved from generations back and then buried with more recent levels artifacts Hence the 2 laws apply in almost all cases And the exceptions are the result of natural and cultural formation and modi cation processes through time The Dimension of Time Fagan 90108 The use of relative and absolute dating techniques to nd out how old are the remains for 99 of all the human events in the past 1 Relative Dating Techniques strata and remains are considered OLDER YOUNGER THAN or CONTEMPORARY with other strata and remains but without making reference to afixed time scale no yearsThis method includes a The law of superposition b The law of association c Typology or seriationstudying the changes in attributes like shape size color and materials through time d Once a sequence of artifact attributes have been established in a site from oldest to youngest then we can compare and cross date them to materials elsewhere 2 Absolute Chronometric dating determining the age of layers and remains on a speci c TIME SCALE as in years before Christ BC Anno Domino AD or before the present BP a EX Dendrochronology or treering dating number of ringsyears ring thicknessclimatic reconstruction to check C14 pg 99 b Radiocarbon dating C141 cosmic radiationneutrons react with nitrogenNl4 forms a radioactive form of C14 an d is absorbed by living organisms Cl4 decays after death at a known rate the half life ofCl4 is 5730 years dates up to 60000 or 70000 years You can only use organic samples which have to be destroyed to obtain the measurable radioactive C14 Uneven cosmic radiation requires statistical calibrations and dendro Check EX a date of 1000100 years means that there is a 67 probability that the date is 1000100 or 10001001100 or 900 cObsidian hydration dating measuring the amount of water penetration into the surface of the obsidian after their manufacture a once the absolute dates of artifacts have been established in a site in years BC AD or BP then we can compare and cross date them to materials elsewhere 91409 Aims and goals of Archaeology Fagan 1013 Description what when and how and explanation why a Describe what happened when and how reconstruct past life ways of people how they adaptedsurvived or failed and ended Develop time sequence or chronologies Humans are the only animals that learn and use culture as the primary means of adapting to the natural environment b Search for factors and explain why societies develop change and end why some achieve complex levels of organization and others do not From hunting to gathering bands to civilizations From wild to domesticated plants and animals From camp sites to villages and cities Explanation in Archaeology using the natural science methodFagan pgl7 2 1 SCIENCE from Latin word to know any discipline in which hypotheses theories and explanations or laws are validated through empirical rst hand observations CHARACTERISTICS OF SCIENCE 1 Deals with the natural phenomena not the supernatural Only material thingsobjects that can be seen measured and analyzed In archaeology the material remains of human behavior inthe past and present 2 The goal of science is the establishment of general laws to predict the conditions or factors under which events occur Beginning with a hypothesis the theory and nally a law hypothesis is a statement subject to veri cation where 2 or more variables are stated in a cause and effect relationship Ex Of an unicausal hypothesis In Egyptgtgtgtif irrigationgtgtgtthen civilization Cause effect 91609 multicausal hypothesis has more cause or reason irrigation trade war and resources Hypothesis plural can be generated by a deduction from general to speci c such as by experiments or reading historical and ethnographic sources B Induction from speci c to genera 3 Testing hypothesis searching for evidence Empirically rst hand and objectivelynot based on faith belief or speculation Tests also include multiple hypothesis new data and application of the null hypothesis cause becomes effect 4 Self correcting method there is no absolute truth in science because there are always exceptions to laws Exceptions require new hypothesis and testsevidence The Earliest People in the America s the PaleoIndian period 300009500 BC Fagan pg 20106 and 4243 Evidence from geology biology physical anthropology and archaeology a Geological evidence dates and reconstruction of the environment during the Pleistocene or ice age a period of extreme climatic uctuations ranging from extensive glaciationsgtgtgtinterglacials Isostasy up and down movement of land Eustasy up and down movement of the sea levels a formation of the land bridgeberingia during the Wisconsin stage when sea levels went down 320 feet between Siberia and Alaska exposing land 1200 miles wide allowing the arrival of the rst people and the true discovery of America 91809 b formation of an icefree passage people plants and animals stayed in Land Bridge refudium with tundra vegetarian until a wa1m trend opened a passage two masses of ice the Lauren tide in the east and Cordilleran in the west of north America Low sea levels during the COLD TRENDopened the Land Bridge and closed the passage Ice melting and high sea levels during the warmtrendclosed the land bridge and opened the icefree passage Another possible wayroute has been suggested people crossing in oating ice sheets 2 Biological evidence dates and reconstruction of the environment plants and animals as sources of food for the first people a vegetation zones during the Pleistocene Tundra in the Land Bridge Refugium and south of the ice sheetsdwarf willow and birch trees open grasslands moss and lichen Taiga south of tundrapine and evergreen Deciduous forests south of Taigagrasslands b fauna during the Pleistocene Include the Megafauna which became extinct at the end of the Pleistocene ca 8000 bc as a result of drastic climatic changes oods and reduction of their food supply Probably humans were also responsible since they were hunting and consuming the meat of some mega fauna 3 Evidence from physical Anthropology second book by Fiedal pg 3948 Analyses of the earliest skeleton remains found in the Americas during the PaleoIndian period show that they belong to a modern species ofpeople known as Homosapiens Such studies also include sex age diseases nutrition and stresses based on the 4 I 39 1 1 I 39 Some of the genetic characteristics which link the Paleo Indian remains and American Indians today and both prehistoric and modern Asian population include a high freguency of a shovel shaped incisors b similar blood type 0 c high susceptibility to European diseases such as smallpox and measles 4 Archaeological evidence The Paleo Indian period 300009500 BC is characterized by a scarcity of sites due to their destruction as a result of the movement and melting of ice sheets as well as by the small and highly mobile early human populations of hunters and gatherers Their tools include stone scrapers knives choppers and spear points attached to wooden handles and spears In 1964 archaeologist Alex Krieger studied all the excavated remains in the Americas and noted an absence of projectile points He then proposed the concept of a Preproj ectile point stagea time when the earliest hunters had no knowledge about making points Krieger s concept was challenged by a new generation of archaeologists They proposed the possibility that projectile points could have been made using bone and woodwhich are materials that tend to decay fast New excavations confirmed the presence of bone and stone points but other sites showed no points of any kind 1 old crow ats in the area of Refugium 2 Wilson Butte Cave 3 Meadowcrest Shelter 4 Tlapacoya 5 Flea cave 6 Fell s cave
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'