Popular in Course
Popular in Communication Studies
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Merritt Kihn on Monday October 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COM101 at Central Michigan University taught by LauraHosler in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see /class/218930/com101-central-michigan-university in Communication Studies at Central Michigan University.
Reviews for IntroductiontoCommunication
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 10/05/15
Chapter 4 Verbal Messages I Denotation has to do with the objective meaning of a term the meaning you would nd in a dictionary Connotation is the subjective or emotional meaning that speci c speakers or listeners give to a wor I Abstractions use both abstract and speci c terms when describing or explaining I Discon rrnation is a communication pattern in which we ignore someone s presence as well as that person s communica on I In con rmation you not only acknowledge the presence of the other person but also indicate your acceptance of this person of this person s self de nition and of your relationship as de ned or viewed by this other person I Ageism is prejudice against other age groups sexist language puts down someone because of his or her gender I The two types of sexual harassment are quid pro quo harassment and hostile environment harassment I In quid pro quo harassment employment opportunities are made dependent on the granting of sexual favors Hostile environment harassment is broader and includes all sexual behaviors that make a worker uncomfortable I Messages symbolizing reality include communicating intentionally and communicating with an allness attitude I Intentional orientation is a tendency to view people objects and events in the way they are talked about the way they are labeled the opposite tendency extensional orientation is the tendency to look rst at the actual people objects and events and only afterward at their labels I Allness refers to that no one can know all or say all about anything I Messages that can obscure distinctions are indiscrimina on polarization and static evaluation I Indiscrimination is the failure to distinguish between similar but different people objects or events I Polarization is the tendency to look at the world in terms of opposites and to describe it in extremes often referred to as black and white thinking I Static evaluation is when you retain an evaluation despite the changes in the person or thing Chapter 5 Nonverbal Messages I Nonverbal communication is communication without words Nonverbal messages accent complement contradict regulate repeat and substitute accent often serves to highlight or emphasize some part of the verbal message complement add nuances of meaning not communicated by your verbal message contradict you may deliberately contradict your verbal messages with nonverbal movements I regulate movements may serve to control or indicate your desire to control the ow of verbal messages as when you lean forward or make hand gestures I repeat you can nonverbally restate a verbal message I substitute nonverbal communication can take the place of verbal messages I Researchers have signaled out several speci c functions in which nonverbal messages are especially signi cant these include forming and managing impressions forming and de ning relationships structuring conversation and social interaction in uence and deception and emotional expression I Forming and managing impressions it is largely through the nonverbal communications of others that you form impressions of them I Forming and de ning relationships largely though nonverbal signals you communicate the nature of your relationship to another person I Structuring conversation and social interaction when you re in a conversation you give and receive cues that you re ready to speak to listen to comment etc I In uence and Deception you can in uence others not only through what you say but you also exert in uence through your nonverbal signals I Emotional expression nonverbal expressions communicate a great part of your emotional experience I There are ve major types of body movements emblems illustrators affect displays regulators and adaptors Emblems are body gestures that directly translate into words or phrases Illustrators enhance the verbal messages they accompan Affect displays are movements of the face but also of the hands and general body Regulators are behaviors that monitor control coordinate or maintain the speech of another individual I Adaptors are gestures that satisfy some personal need such as scratching to relieve an itch Self adaptors are self touching movements alter adaptors are movements directed at the person with whom you re speaking such as removing lint from a person s jacket object adaptors are gestures focused on objects such as shredding a Styrofoam cup I The messages communicated by the eyes vary depending on the duration direction and quality of the eye behavior I Territoriality is a possessive reaction to an area or to particular objects you interact in three types of territories primary secondary and public territories I Primary territories are areas that you might call your own these areas are your own exclusive preserve I Secondary territories are areas that don t belong to you but which you have occupied and with which you re associated I Public territories are areas that are open to all people they may be owned by some person or organization but they are used by everyone I Artifactual messages are messages conveyed through objects or arrangements made by human hands Color the clothing or jewelry you wear or the way you decorate space communicate a wide variety of meanings I Paralanguage is the vocal but nonverbal dimension of speech IT has to do with how you say something rather than what you say Chapter 6 Interpersonal Communication Conversations and Relationships Conversation takes place in ve steps opening feedforward business feedback and closing Opening involves some kind of greeting Feedforward usually give some kind of clue about what you re about to talk about Business the substance or focus of the conversation Feedback re ecting on the conversation Closing signals the intention to end access Throughout the speaking listening process both speaker and listener exchange cues for what are called conversational turns I Speaker regulate the conversation through two major types of cues turn maintaining cues and turn yielding cues I Through turnmaintaining cues a person can communicate the wish to maintain the role of speaker in a variety of ways audibly inhaling breath to show that the speaker has more to say or avoiding eye contact with the listener so as not to indicate that she speaking turn is being passed along I Turnyielding cues tell the listener that the speaker is nished and wishes to exchange the role of speaker for the role of listener I As a listener you can regulate the conversation by using three types of cues turn reques ng cues turn denying cues and Backchanneling cues I Turnrequesting cues let the speaker know you would like to say something and take a turn as speaker I Turndenying cues indicate your reluctance to assume the role of speaker Backchanneling cues communicate various types of information back to the speaker without assuming the role of speaker you can indicate your agreement or disagreement with the speaker through smiles or frowns or gestures of approval or disapproval In dialogue each person is both speaker and listener sender and receiver In monologue one person speaks and the others listen Immediacy has to do with the joining of speaker and listener it s the creation of a sense of togetherness of oneness The stages of interpersonal relationships include contact involvement intimacy deterioration repair and dissolution At the initial phase of the contact stage there is some kind of perceptual contact you see and hear the person after the perception of the other person there is usually an interac onal contact this contact is super cial and relatively impersonal At the involvement stage a sense of mutuality of being connected develops here you experiment and try to learn more about the other person At the initial phase 0 involvement a kind of testing goes on you want to see whether your initial judgment proves reasonable The contact and involvement stages make up relationship development a movement toward intimacy At the intimacy stage you commit yourself still further to the other person and establish a relationship in which this individual becomes your best or closest friend lover or companion The relationship deterioration stage is characterized by a weakening of the bonds between the friends or lovers The rst phase of deterioration is usually intrapersonal dissatisfaction You begin to experience personal dissatisfaction with everyday interactions and begin to view the future with your partner more negatively If this dissatisfaction grows you pass to the second phase interpersonal deterioration you withdraw and grow further and further apart At the relationship repair stage some relational partners may pause during deterioration and try to repair their relationship In intrapersonal repair you analyze what went wrong and consider ways of solving your relational dif culties In the interpersonal repair phase you might discuss with your partner the problems in the relationship and the changes you want to see The dissolution stage the last stage in the relationship model involves cutting the bonds that e you together One theory of friendship identi es three major types friendships of reciprocity receptivity and association The friendship of reciprocity is characterized by loyalty self sacri ce mutual affection and generosity based on equality In the friendship of receptivity in contrast there is an imbalance in giving and receiving one person is the primary giver and the other is the primary receiver The friendship of association is transitory it might be described as a friendly relationship rather than a true friendship Eros love seeks beauty and sensuality and focuses on physical attractiveness sometimes to the exclusion of qualities we might consider more important and more lasting Ludic love seeks entertainment and excitement and sees love as a game Storge love is a peaceful and tranquil love establish a companionable relationship with someone they know and with whom they can share interests and activities Pragma love is practical and traditional and seeks compatibility and a relationship in which important needs and desires will be satis ed Manic love is an obsessive love that needs to give and receive constant attention and affection Agapic love is compassionate and sel ess There are 5 theories of interpersonal communication and relationships including attraction relationship rules social penetration social exchange and equity I Attraction theory holds hat people form relationships on the basis of attraction You are attracted to others on the basis of four major factors physical attractiveness similarity proximity and reinforcement I The general assumption of rules theory is that relationships friendship and love in particular held together by adherence to certain rules when those rules are broken the relationship may deteriorate and even dissolve I Social penetration theory is a theory not of why relationships develop but of what happens when they do develop it describes relationships in terms of the number of topics that people talk about and their degree of personalness The breadth of a relationship has to do with the number of topics you and your partner talk about The depth of a relationship involves the degree to which you penetrate the inner personality the core of the other individual When a relationship begins to deteriorate the breadth and depth will reverse themselves in a depenetration I Social exchange theory claims that you develop relationships that will enable you to maximize your pro ts a theory based on an economic model of pro ts and losses I Equity theory uses the ideas of social exchange but goes a step farther and claims that you develop and maintain relationships in which the ratio of your rewards relative to your costs is approximately equal to your partner s Chapter 7 Managing Interpersonal Con ict I Interpersonal con ict is disagreement between or among connected individuals I Content con ict centers on objects events and persons that are usually external to the parties involved in the con ict relationship con icts are concerned not as much with external objects as with the relationships between the individuals with issues like who is in charge or how equal are the members in a primary relationship I The way in which you engage in con ict has consequences for the resolution of the con ict and for the relationship between the con icting parties I The competitive style I win you lose involves great concern for your own needs and desires and little of those of others this is the con ict style of a person who simply imposes his or her will on the other I The avoiding style I lose you lose is relatively unconcerned with their own or with their opponents needs or desires they avoid any real communication about the problem change topics when the problem is brought up and generally withdraw from the scene both psychologically and physically I In the accommodating style I lose you win you sacri ce your own needs for the needs of the other persons your major purpose is to maintain harmony and peace in the relationship or group does little to meet your own needs which are unlikely to go away I In the collaborating style I win you win you address both your own and the other person s needs this style often considered the ideal takes time and a willingness to communicate and especially to listen to the perspectives and needs of the other person I The compromising style I win and lose you win and lose is in the middle there s some concerns for your own needs and some concern for the other s needs I When you evaluate or judge another person or what that person has done that person is likely to become resentful and defensive and is likely to respond with attempts to defend himself or herself and perhaps at the same time to become equally evaluative and judgmental In contrast when you describe what happened or what you want it creates no such defensiveness and is generally seen as supportive the distinction between evaluation and description can be seen in the differences between you messages and I messages I If you put yourself in the role of the listener hearing these statements you probably can feel the resentment or defensiveness that the evaluative messages youmessages would create and the supportiveness from the descriptive messages IInessages I The word gunnysacking refers to the unproductive process of storing up grievances as if in a gunnysack and then unloading them when an argument arises I Verbal aggressiveness is a method of winning an argument by in icting psychological pain by attacking the other person s self concept I Arglnnentativeness refers to the willingness to argue for a point of view your tendency to speak your mind on signi cant issues Chapter 8 Small Group Communication I Small group types include relationship and task groups or reference and membership grou s I Social or relationship groups are the groups in which you participate early in life these groups serve your relationship needs for af liation af rmation and affection I Task groups are groups formed to accomplish something I A reference group is a group from which you derive your values and norms of behavior it serves as a standard against which you compare yourself you judge your successes and your failures in comparison with those of members of the reference group I A membership group is a group that you participate in but do not use to guide or measure yourself I The stages of small groups are opening small talk feedforward identify what needs to be done business actual discussion feedback re ection and closing exchange closing comments I Small groups serve their functions in a variety of formats these include roundtable panel symposium and symposium forum I In the roundtable format group members arrange themselves in a circular or semicircular pattern they share information or solve a problem without any set pattern of who speaks when I The panel format is similar to the roundtable however panel participants are experts Remarks are informal and there is no set pattern for who speaks when but the panel is observed by an audience whose members may interject comments or ask questions I The symposium format consists of a series of prepared presentations much like public speeches all speeches address different aspects of a single topic I The symposiu1nf0rum format consist of two parts a symposium of prepared speeches and a f0ru1n consisting largely of questions and comments from the audiences and responses from the symposium speakers I Group norms are rules or standards identifying which behaviors are considered and which are considered inappropriate I Brainstorming is a process often used in such groups it s a technique for analyzing a problem through a process of generating as many ideas as possible Brainstorming occurs in two phases The rst is the brainstorming period the second is the evaluation period I The purpose of information sharing groups is to acquire new information or skills by sharing knowledge all members have something to teach and something to learn I Members of educational or learning groups may follow a variety of discussion patterns perhaps the most popular is the topical pattern I A focus group is a kind of in depth interview of a small group the leader tries to discover the members beliefs attitudes thoughts and feelings so as to guide decisions on I The problem solving sequence identi es six steps de ne and analyze the pro em establish criteria for evaluating solu ons identify possible solutions evaluate solu ons select the best solutions and test selected solutions Chapter 9 Members and Leaders in Small Group Communication I Group task roles help the group focus on achieving its goals I The information seeker 0r giver or the opinion seeker 0r giver asks for or gives facts and opinions seeks clari cation of issues being discussed and presents facts or opinions to group members I The evaluatorcritic evaluates the group s decisions questions the logic or practically of the suggestions and provides the group with both positive and negative feedback I The procedural technician takes care of various mechanical du es Group building and maintenance roles serve relationship needs so group members are satis ed and productive The encourager or harmonizer provides members with positive reinforcement through social approval or praise for their ideas and mediates the various differences between group members The compromiser tries to resolve con ict between his or her ideas and those of others and offers oompromises The follower goes along with members passively accepts the ideas of others and functions more as an audience than as an active mem er Individual roles are counterproductive they hinder the group from achieving its goals and are individual rather than group oriente The aggressor or blocker expresses negative evaluation of members and attacks the group is generally disagreeable and opposes other members or their suggestions regardless of their merit The recognition seeker and the selfconfessor try to focus attention on themselves boast about their accomplishments rather than the task at hand and express their own feelings rather than focus on the group The dominator tries to run the group or members by pulling rank attering members or acting the role of boss Guidelines for effective member participation include be group oriented center con ict on issues be critically open minded ensure understanding and beware of groupthink In groupthink agreement among members becomes extremely important so important that it tends to shut out realistic and logical analysis of a problem or of possible alternatives Approaches to leadership include the traits approach functional approach transformational approach and the situational approach The traits approach views the leader as the one who possesses those characteristics or skills that contribute to leadership The functional approach to leadership focuses on what the leader should do in a given situation The transformational approach describes a visionary or charismatic leader who elevates the group s members enabling them not only to accomplish the group task but also to emerge as more empowered individuals The situational approach holds that the effective leader adjusts his or her emphasis between task accomplishment and member satisfaction on the basis of the speci c group situation The situational approach theory has four leadership styles the telling style selling style participating style and delegating style The telling style most appropriate for the group lacking both task and relationship maturity is highly directive the leader who is signi cantly more knowledgeable or more powerful than the members tells the group what has to be done and what they have to do to accomplish it The selling style is both directive and supportive The leader using this style sometimes called ooaching tries to sell the members on the task to be accomplishe The participating style is nondirective and highly supportive the leader s focus is almost entirely on member satisfaction and member relationships The delegating style often used with mature and knowledgeable groups is low in both direction and support This leader allows the group members to set their own goals to de ne the problem as they see t and to progress through the problem solving process with little leader interferenoe General styles of leadership include the laissez faire leader the democratic leader and the authoritarian leader The laissezfaire leader takes no initiative in directing or suggesting alternative courses of action rather this leader allows the group to develop and progress on its own even allowing it to make its own mistakes I The democratic leader provides direction but allows the group to develop and progress the way its members wish this form of leadership is similar to the participating style in the situational approach I The authoritarian leader is the opposite of the laissez faire leader this leader determines group policies and makes decisions without consulting or securing agreement from the members I Functions of leadership include preparing members and start interactions maintaining effective interaction guiding members through the agreed on agenda ensuring member satisfaction empowering group members encouraging ongoing evaluation and improvement and managing con ict Chapter 13 The Persuasive Speech I Persuasion is the process of in uencing another person s attitudes beliefs values andor behaviors I Emotional appeals often called motivational appeals are appeals to your listeners feelings needs desires and wants and are extremely powerful in persuasion when you use emotional appeals you appeal to those forces that energize move or motivate people to develop change or strengthen their attitudes or ways of behaving I One of the assumptions of Maslow s hierarchy is that people seek to ful ll the needs at the lowest level rst and that only when those needs are satis ed do the needs at the next level begin to in uence behavior I Maslow s hierarchy from the lowest level rst is physiological needs safety needs belonging and love needs self esteem needs ands elf actualization nee s I Your credibility is the degree to which your audience regards you as a believable spokesperson I To demonstrate your competence show your listeners that you are knowledgeable and thoroughly familiar with your topic The more knowledge and expertise the audience sees you as having the more likely the audience will believe you I An audience will see you as credible and will believe you if they perceive you as someone of high moral character someone whom is honest and whom they can trust I Charisma is a combination of your personality and dynamism as seen by the audience An audience will perceive you as credible if they like you and if they see you as friendly and pleasant rather than aloof and reserved I Questions of fact concern what is or is not true what does or does not exist what did or did not happen I Questions of value concern what people consider good or bad moral or immoral just or unjust I When you move beyond a focus on value to urging your audience to do something about an issue you re then into a question of policy