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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Merritt Kihn on Monday October 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COM365 at Central Michigan University taught by JeffreyDrury in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see /class/218932/com365-central-michigan-university in Communication Studies at Central Michigan University.
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Date Created: 10/05/15
com 365 notes 012810 Social pressures Defined 1 Psychological or moral force imposed on an individual through cultural norms A type of social influence Related to social standards for behavior and attitudes Relies on communication 19an Often results in conformity i What is conformity 1 Going along with the culturegroupnorm ii How does it differ from persuasion 1 Persuasion is related to impelling changeresults in creation of a state of identification You believe something when you are persuaded you don t necessarily agree with something with which something you conform Social N pressures persuade you to conform 2 Asch s conformity study Interested in the pressure of others opinions on our own Experiment design Unambiguous task Groups of college students 68 insiders 1 participant meUm Told it was an experiment in perception i Uniform incorrect assessment has strongest influence ii Introduction of single dissenter reduced majority influence by nearly 75 percent iii Study raises questions about conformity 1 llWhen consensus comes under the dominance of conformity the social process sis polluted and the individual at the same time surrenders the powers on which his function as a feeling and being depends 3 Walter lippmann a History Journalist and political commentator Worked for pres Wilson during WWI N b Beliefs i Interested in the force of the masses ii Not a lot of faith in llthe people iii Preferred technocracy ruled by experts c Opinion stereotypes i Interested in the formation of public opinion ii For the most part we do not first see and then define we define first and then see The stereotyped shapes lent to the world come not merely from art in the sense of painting and sculpting and literature bur from our moral codes and our social philosophies and our political agitations as well 1 What does Lippmann mean by these quotations a We get stereotypes from all these sources so the persuasive messages with which we surround ourselves with since birth influence our opinions iv Stereotypes constrain our understanding of the world v Based on psychological and cultural factors vi We pick up on quotrecognizable signs in an environment and apply existing ideas to them Vll Serve as the core of our selfunderstanding of our place in the world viii Serve as a type of social influence 1 quotthe subtlest and most pervasive of all influences are those which create and maintain the repertory of stereotypes We are told about the world before we see it We imagine most things before we experience them And 2 Communication can reinforce andor dissuade stereotypes 4 NlU s social norm campaign 95m Tquotf39D 0 Targeted binge drinking First of its kind to use social pressures Put out a series of print advertisements i Flyers ii Posters iii Newspaper ads Raises questions about persuasive tactics Annual selfreport survey remember selfreport so not necessarily true Showed the following success over 10 years 44 reduction in binge drinking ii 44 reduction in selfinjury iii 76 reduction in injury to others iv 50 decline in keg sales v Fewer legal violation 5 Some questions to consider a b c Why do you suspect appealing to social norms is so persuasive What are the risks of appealing to social norms Under what conditions if any might conformity be a good thing 6 The spiral of silence a b Elisabeth Noelleneumann i Worked for Giebbels Reich Minister of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda ii Wrote for das reich Theorizes about social pressures via media 2 c Premises i Societal norms are intimidating ii Public opinion is a tangible force iii People have quasistatistical organ an innate ability to gauge public opinion to sense the norm like a 6 h sense iv People fear social isolation v People are hesitant to express minority opinions especially if they are lllosing ground I d Role of media i Media work with majority opinion to silence the minority ii People use the media to gauge support for their position iii Because of media theory is limited today 1 Hardcores provide voice for minority 2 Pluralistic ignorance means we misestimate prevalence of a particular opinion 3 Weak support outside of context of WWII Germany The difference between this and Asch s scenario in Asch s experiment people were required to provide an answer In the real world people are not required to answer Thus they may be more likely to be silent than to be a minority who disagrees In the Asch study about 25 of the people never conformed they said what they truly thought every time meaning that there will always be a voice for the minority Summary Social pressures 1 Utilize various psychological processes 2 Influence the formation of individual opinions 3 Bear upon individual action and belief a Agreement b Conformity c silence Bitzer s theoretical foundation Rhetoric is bound to and can transform context Situations invite fitting rhetorical responses A rhetorical situation is a precondition for rhetoric Built upon Aristotle s realism Dewey s pragmatism believed that rhetoric communication has a purpose Mallnowskl s functionallsm thlngs exist to perform a function Three main constituents to the rhetorical situation Rhetorical exigence an imperfection marked by urgency a flaw a problem Audience not the immediate audience of the discourse but rather those who can mediate change Constraints 2 types artlstic those that can be managed by the speakerrhetor the person producing the discourse lnartlstlc those outside of the rhetor operative in the situation itself attitudes of the audience toward your message if the audience is hostile then that constrains the message If your audience does not believe that an exigence exists then that constrains your response If you are outside Things that limit the way you can make your message heardadapt it to the situation The three are not always apparent to the rhetor lt s a judgment call you must predict what your exigence is and your constraints etc Good rhetors work with the three above and basically work with what they have Rhetoric as a theory of persuasion Bitzer Asks us to judge how well the persuasive message is a quotfitting response to the situation Does the rhetor read the situation and respond appropriately We re not talking about the effectiveness but the appropriateness to the situation Requires consideration of Rhetorical exigence How did the rhetor define it Is the definition appropriate given the situation Audience Which audiences did the rhetor address Are they appropriate audiences given the situation Constraints What major constraints were present How well does the rhetor attempt to recognize and manage them Discussion activity 2 Robert f kennedy s eulogy of mlk Robert f kennedy King is assassinated april4 1968 in Memphis Kennedy learns of this on his way to Indianapolis Planned stop as part of his campaign Imagine you are kennedy what are your options As you watch kennedy s speech think about Kennedy s persuasive purpose to act appropriately in light of the situation to maintain a positive image and to identify with the audience and to persuade them to continue MLK s mission The fit of his response in light of the constituents
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