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by: Merritt Kihn

AdvancedInterpersonalComm COM468

Merritt Kihn
GPA 3.81


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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Merritt Kihn on Monday October 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COM468 at Central Michigan University taught by LesleyWithers in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see /class/218934/com468-central-michigan-university in Communication Studies at Central Michigan University.


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Date Created: 10/05/15
The theories Symbolic interaction theory quot5 George Herbert mead A Sla frame of reference for understanding how humans in concert with one another create symbolic worlds and how these worlds in turn shape human behavior La Rossa and Reitzes 1993 pg 21 B Assumptions Humans behaviorsbased on meanings they perceive others have for them Interactions create meaning Meanings change based on interpretation of them in each situation We learn who we are through interactions with others Our behaviors are a result of our selfconcept mnpcm Cultural and contextual expectations influence behaviors g Our interactions shape social situations C Key concepts Mind self and society Mead a In our minds we can take the role of the other giving us empathy for others and developing our selfconcept b Self the ability to act as ourselves and see our actions as others do c l acting self me observing self quotI do v mewhat the is doing does the l s behavior reflect me d Societyindividuals both influence and are influenced by society i Particular others significant individuals to us ii Generalized others members ofa community e Edwards 2004 found that working class women spend much of their time negotiating their family s identity f SI helps to understand the meanings that women assign to labor within the family and how their work supports the family g SI explains how people see themselves how that view relates to others and how they make meaning of their observations a broad general theory Uncertainty reduction A A more specific theory URTindividuals seek to predict and explain behaviors in the initial stages of a relationship B 2 types of uncertainty a Cognitive Uncertainty uncertainty as it relates to one s own beliefs b Behavioral Uncertainty uncertainty about what people do and say i Violation of expected norms increases uncertainty C Assumptions a Uncertaintypresent in interpersonal interactions b Uncertaintystressful uncomfortable undesirable c Strangers first priority to reduce uncertainty not very strong assumption d Process of lPCa series of stages e Reducing uncertaintychiefly accomplished through IPC f Amount and type of shared information between 2 people changes with time D Accepted truths a Communication decreases uncertainty as uncertainty is decreased communication increases b Nonverbal messages decrease uncertainty as uncertainty decreases nonverbal expressiveness increases c Informationseeking behavior increasesdecreases together with levels of uncertainty d Uncertainty levelsinversely correlated with levels of intimacy e Uncertainty levels and desire to reciprocate covary f Similarities lower uncertainty levels dissimilarities increase uncertainty g Uncertainty levelsinversely correlated with liking E Application a Powell and Afifi 2005 tried to expand URT applied it to adoptees and their feelings about their birth parents b Concluded that URT doesn t account for the situations in which people prefer uncertainty to the possibility of unpleasant information c Reducing uncertainty is only one strategy people employ COM 468 notes 232010 WaltherJB 1996 Computermediated communication Impersonal interpersonal and hyperpersonal interaction Communication Research 23 343 1 CMI help or hindrance and when a Trends in CMC research and theory have defined CMC as too lean for taskrelated communication and ineffectiveinappropriate for interpersonal relationships due to a lack of social information in CMC Despite these trends CMC grows in use and there s evidence from popular culture that CMC can be as personal or more personal than FtF communication c Walther reconceptualizes CMC in 2 ways i Reconceptualizes research to specify the conditions under which CMC favors impersonal v interpersonal outcomes both of which can be helpful in the right situations 1 Original goaldata transmission for security and information redundancy 2 Later people realized it could b e used for group communications such as emergency task coordination among geographicallydistanced people iiUnderstanding effectiveness and social character of CMC interactions 1 Disadvantages CMC use email conferencing reduced interpersonal affect and group solidarity more hostile and profane so characterized as uninhibited depersonalized less suitable for personal interactions than multichannel media 2 Advantages why is noninterpersonal good a CMCmore taskoriented less social more impersonal nature can aid group decisionmaking i CMC s impersonal less social nature increases group effectiveness 1 Actual group effectivenesspotential effectivenessprocess losses and process gains 2 Process gains aspects of group interactions that makes group process superior to individual decisionmaking iiCMC s reduced interpersonalsocial nature also leaves more time for task focus 039 iiiParticipation equality democratization CMC discussions allow for iiiWhy might CMC be inherently impersonal 1 Social presence theory fewer channels ie lack of NV cues reduced interactivity of email converencing systems results in less attention paid to the social presence of others in the interaction and less social presenceincreased impersonal nature which affects impression formation and perception of context affecting users selection of and interpretation of messages 2 Approaches such as Social Presence Theory are called the cuesfilteredoutquot perspective in which all CMC is predicted to be less social less personal since it always constrains the number of cues Many studies support this view 3 Walther argues against this perspective d Alternative findings i When interaction time was not limited many counterexamples exist iiRecent writings have dismissed cuesfilteredout theories as research artifacts but have difficulty explaining for the studies supporting those theories iiintervening variable time CMC users adapt their verbal behavior to the medium over time to be more interpersonal 2 lnterpsonal CMC reaching out to touch someone a A social information processing theory perspective i An alternative to the cuesfilteredout theories SIP assumes that CMC users become acquainted with others by forming simple impressions testing and refining these impressions over time and changing the relational communication iiSP predicts that interpersonal relationships will develop normally but more slowly in CMC due to CMC s slower rate of social information exchange ie less social information per message due to lack of NV cues but users can adapt to use just the verbal channel for relational communication 3 Lessons Learned a Overview i For interpersonal interactions CMC partners need more accesstime to develop iiAt times when impersonal interactions are more desirable CMC used for less time kept relatively anonymous and without anticipation of future interaction can lead to a stronger task orientation and potentially increased productivity lll Hyper personal CMC social interaction and work groups CMC is sometimes more socially desirable than FtF communication A The receiver idealized perception a Over attribution CMC message receivers sometimes inflate their perceptions of their partners over relying on minimal cues b Social identitydeinividuation SIDE theory predicts that without FtF cues or prior knowledge of the partner CMC s subtle social contextpersonality cues take on greater value i When in a group participants tent to focus on their social selfcategorization rather than their individual self categorization who am within this group This awareness leads more positive focus on paralinguistic cues to more attributions of similarity and liking with partners iiWhen geographicallydistant from partners and not aware of a group relationship we tend to assume that partners are less competent and less desirable iiiSlDE predicts how CMC receivers make social judgments but does not look at motivation or languageparalanguage use as SIP theory does c CMC users of ten assume similarity because they work for the same organization or have joined the same online groups due to common interests B The sender Optimized Selfpresentation a Two CMC features allow for selective selfpresentation i Reduced communication cues we can editcontrol our verbal behavior more than our NV behavior to better manage our selfpresentations even to the point of deception which means that we may devote more cognitive resources to message construction causing na increase in introspection and reflection ie private selfawareness iiPotentially asynchronous communication some forms of CMC are asynchronous which allow users to use them at their own convenience freeing users to respond when they have the time for both task and social interaction reduced entrainment problems b Individualsocial benefits i FtF realtime communication requires much more effort to manage both verbal and nonverbal elements as well as timeresource constraints iiAsynchronous CMC allows one to plan contemplate and edit messages deliberately with more control than FtF leading to improved communication quality and more favorable perceptions of the partners c Feedback an intensification loop i Behavioral confirmation ie reciprocal influence partners exert is magnified even more important in CMC than in FtF iiExampe selffulfilling prophecy when interacting in CMC males belief that they communicated with attractive females affected the males communication which in turn affected the females communication ie they became more engaged animated which reinforced males beliefs that the females were attractive iiiSynchronous v asynchronous communication as well as CMC v FtF should be compared but there is no such thing as asynchronous FtF communication without mediation ivDip needs development to explain situations in which users do not wish to have positive interactions eg flaming vSP needs exploration for Web 20 multimedia videoconferencing virtual reality viWhen is CMC l Impersonal Rarely 2 Interpersonal When it has the time to develop 3 hyper personal When users have common experiences and are selfaware physically separated limited in the cues they can share allowing the selective presentation for oneself and reciprocation of partners representations


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