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Chapter 1 Introducing Psychology and Research Methods Module 11 Learning Objectives The Science of Psychology Describe reasons for studying psychology and why it is considered both a science and a profession Define psychology and behavior differentiating between overt and covert behaviors Describe how the search for empirical evidence sets psychology apart from commonsense beliefs and from other fields of study Define the terms data scientific observation and research method Explain why some topics in psychology are difficult to study Module 11 Learning Objectives The Science of Psychology Continued Describe each of the following research specialties in psychology developmental learning personality sensation and perception comparative biopsychology cognitive gender social cultural evolutionary and forensic Explain why and how animals are used in research defining the term animal model and listing ways in which psychological research may benefit animals Explain the four goals of psychology Wha s Psychology Psychology Psyche Mind Logos Knowledge or study Definition The scientific study of behavior and mental processes Behavior Overt i e can be directly observed crying Mental Processes Covert i e cannot be directly observed remembering Empiricism The Goals To measure and describe behaviors To gather empirical evidence information gained from direct observation and measurement To gather data Observed facts To use scientific observation Empirical investigation that is structured so that it answers questions about the world Aggravated assault of year Aggravatcltl assauh ofyear He rhand scab l I Tvmpevature In LA righvhantl scaleb 14 6 Il l ll l llllllIIllll17 A a 2 LP a o 1 G O D 0 0 D 3 E E 9 9 9 f g E i i i Wmswarh Cergaga Learnan Temperature in Los Angeles What Topics Dc Psychologists Research Development Course of human growth and development Learning How and why it occurs in humans and animals Personality Traits motivations and individual differences What Topics Do Psychologists Research Continued Sensation and Perception How we come to know the world through our five senses Comparative Psychology Behavior of different species Biopsychology How behavior is related to biological processes especially activities in the nervous system What Might a Psychologist Research Continued Cognition How people think Gender Study differences between males and females and how they develop Social Psychology Human social behavior What Might a Psychologist Research Continued Cultural Psychology How culture affects human behavior Evolution How our behavior is guided by patterns that evolved Forensics How to apply psychological principles to legal issues What Are the Goals of Psychology Description of Behaviors Naming and classifying various observable measurable behaviors Understanding The causes of behavior Prediction Forecasting behavior accurately Control Altering conditions that affect behaviors Module 12 Learning Objectives Critical Thinking and the Scientific Method in Psychology Define the term critical thinking Describe the four basic principles which form the foundation of critical thinking Define pseudopsychology Explain how it differs from psychology Describe the pseudopsychologies of palmistry phrenology graphology and astrology Module 12 Learning Objectives Critical Thinking and the Scientific Method in Psychology Continued Explain why they continue to thrive even though they have no scientific basis Explain the problem with using commonsense as a source of information List and define the six steps of the scientific method Define the terms hypothesis operational definition and theory Explain the importance of publishing List and describe the parts of a research report Critical Thinking Ability to analyze evaluate critique and synthesize information What would you expect to see if the claim were true Gather evidence relevant to the claim Evaluate the evidence Draw a conclusion Oftentimes used in research Four Basic Principles of Critical Thinking 1 Few truths transcend the need for empirical testing 2 Judging the quality of evidence is crucial 3 Authority or claimed expertise does not automatically make an idea true 4 Critical thinking requires an open mind Pseudopsychologies Pseudo means false any unfounded system that resembles psychology and is NOT based on scientific testing Phrenology Personality traits revealed by shape of skull and bumps on your head Palmistry Lines on your hands palms predict future and reveal personality Pseudopsychologies Continued Graphology Personality revealed by your handwriting Astrology The positions of the stars and planets at birth determine your personality and affect your behavior More on Pseudopsychologies Uncritical Acceptance Tendency to believe positive or unflattering descriptions of yourself Fallacy of Positive Instances When we remember or notice things that confirm our expectations and forget the rest The Barnum Effect Barnum Effect Tendency to consider personal descriptions accurate if stated in general terms Always have a little something for everyone make sure all palm readings horoscopes etc are so general that something in them will always apply to any one person E g Miss Cleo The Scientific Method Six Basic Elements 1 Making observations 2 Defining a problem Operational definitions 3 Proposing a hypothesis An educated guess that can be tested 4 Gathering evidencetesting the hypothesis 5 Publishing results 6 Building a theory Scientific Theory A system of ideas that interrelates facts and concepts summarizes existing data and predicts future observations A good theory must be falsifiable i e operationally defined so that it can be disconfirmed 39Conceptual Level Hypothesized relationship Concepts Concrete Level Operational definitions i Observed relationship a mennh Engage Izznmg a wauxwanh unumaLumnu I TABLE 11 Outline of a Research Report Wnswamv Denna Abstract Research reports begin with a very brief summary of the study and its findings The abstract allows you to get an overview without reading the entire article Introduction The introduction describes the question to be investigated It also provides background information by reviewing prior studies on the same or related topics Method This section tells how and why observations were made It also describes the specific procedures used to gather data That way other researchers can repeat the study to see if they get the same results Results The outcome of the investigation is presented Data maybe graphed summarized in tables or statistically analyzed Discussion The results of the study are discussed in relation to the original question Implications of the study are explored and further studies maybe proposed Module 13 Learning Objectives History and Contemporary Perspectives I For each ofthese schools of psychology structuralism functionalism 39 L 39 39 Gestalt L 39 L and humanism answereach of the following questions its founder reasons it was founded its goal or main focus and its impact on modern psychology andor possible use in psychotherapy Identify notable events within the history of psychology Describe the contribution of women to the early history of psychology and their representation in the field then and now Explain the contemporary perspectives in psychology including the concepts of eclectic positive psychology cultural diversity cultural relativity and social norms History of Psychology Beginnings 1879 Wundt set up first lab to study conscious experience in Germany Systematically observed and measured various stimuli Introspection Looking inward ie examining and reporting your thoughts feelings etc History of Psychology Structuralism Wundt s ideas brought to the US by Tichener and renamed Structuralism Structuralism School of thought concerned with analyzing sensations and personal experience into basic elements History of Psychology Functionalism VWIiam James American wrote Principles of Psychology 1890 Functionalism How the mind functions to adapt us to our environment Functionalists admired DanNin and his theory of natural selection Animas keep features through evolution that help them adapt to environments Functionalism s Effects on Modern Psychology Animals brought into the study of psychology Educational Psychology Study of learning teaching classroom dynamics and related topics Industrial Psychology Study of people at work History of Psychology Behaviorism Psychology must study observable behavior objectively John B Watson studied relationship between stimuli and responses Little Albert BF Skinner studied animals almost exclusively Believed actions controlled by punishments and rewards History of Psychology Cognitive Behaviorism View that combines cognition and conditioning to explain behavior Cognitive Behaviorists Ellis and Bandura Our thoughts influence our behaviors Used often in treatment of depression History of Psychology Gestalt Gestalt Psychology The whole is greater than the sum of its parts Studied thinking learning and perception in whole units not by analyzing experiences into parts Influenced study of perception and personality Key names Wertheimer Perls History of Psychology Freud Psychoanalytic Perspective Our behavior is largely influenced by our unconscious wishes thoughts and desires especially sex and aggression Freud among first to appreciate that childhood affects adult personality Freud created psychoanalysis Repression Repression When memories thoughts or impulses are unconsciously held out of awareness Recent research has hypothesized that our unconscious mind is partially responsible for our behaviors History of Psychology NeoFreudians New or recent some of Freud s students who broke away to promote their own theories Less emphasis on sex and aggression Key Names Alfred Adler Anna Freud Freud s daughter Karen Horney Carl Jung Otto Rank Erik Erikson History of Psychology Humanism Key Names Rogers and Maslow Goal of psychology is to study unique aspects of the person Focuses on human experience problems potentials and ideals Each person has innate goodness and is able to make free choices contrast with Skinner and Freud Terms SelfImage Perception of our own body personality and capabilities SelfEvaluation Positive or negative feelings held toward one s self Frame of Reference Mental perspective used to interpret events SelfActualization Ongoing process of fully developing one s personal potential TABLE I 2 The Early Devalonment of Psychmoa NOTABLE EVENIS FERSFECTIVE buymm ysychaagy Structurillxm nationalism Psynhadynamr psymaluqy khanlurk mm psycnmqy Humanistic psychnay wmmm Burglar Lcmmnu DATE nm psychdwy murse aWEred by Wiliam am 2 gt a 3 c E n l marina psychn ngy nrs Amsnmn vsvcnnlnqy lexmuok wrmen By John Dem Edward T Meneradvartes psycmg based m1 quothospectmn William Jamzspubnmmin pusafPsythalagy a a39 American Fsyhulag1calAssnEia un mum Sigmund Fraud nubllihes lhl 3 u in l 39 Wall Pav w Yen t a read puhlmes me Vnmpmatmn ul Dreams arts his rawarch ml cmdmcne re exes John Watson pvesenls behavlorlstlt vlm Max wennamr and met advance Eeslall ViEWWIM can Hagen nuwsnes Counseling and Psychotherapy Abraham Maslow publlshes quotA Weary of Human Mollvallonquot Women in Psychology s Early Days Mary Calkins Research on memory 1st woman president of American Psychological Association Christine LaddFranklin Research on color vision Margaret Washburn Published The Animal Mind 1908 Psychology Today Biopsychological Perspective All of our behavior can be explained through physiological processes Study the brain and nervous system Psychological Perspective Behavior is shaped by individual psychological processes Includes behaviorism cognitive behaviorism cognition humanism and psychoanalysis Psychology Today Continued Sociocultural Perspective Behavior affected by social and cultural contexts Cultural relativity Behavior must be judged relative to values ofthe culture in which it occurs Social norms Rules that define acceptable and expected behavior Positive Psychology Study of human strengths virtues and optimal behavior Looks at positive side of human behavior such as love creativity wellbeing and optimal behavior YABLE Cnntemwrirvwav 0 on it BEHWIDY BIDLDGICM PERSPECTIVE Biuuxyrhulugical View mm mdm anmicmuhauis uiew vfhumin mm Evolmmrtary new m m munaa marinalvmwuis ma 7250 mm nmssoluuunan name FS IENULOGIEAL PERSPECTNE BehaviNii C View Kw ex Behavior shaved am cmhulzdbvanes emimnmm 5 gt R nuulnl mum somewhatmmmisli vim MMnlal quotalum 3 lingm39tivo View n m m um nunan Enhavv39mau n umustavd m mm 0 the mli lwwsw39ng vf nfamli m WW mlumlakml Mammal mullal snmewml coupltuIM View a human Hanna Psycnanynanu39t View IV Inquot merr39s dimquot by hues wilhin any permHIE M3 II Men hwrnar unmnsa39n nnniu yummy munM mauve maimko m 0 mum Mun mmamsriz mew hehavinnnasuwe unnnsnphim m or mm mm sDcIucuLTuHAL PERSPEC39INE SaliImMuraI View In Itquot Behavior in wnmnv ones mint and culluralcurnxl m nmlr iinnw mm vim nl hlmn quotanquot Nadsvmnr Cumin Lmrmnu Module 14 Learning Objectives Psychologists and Their Specialties Characterize the differences in training emphasis and sources of employment among psychologists psychiatrists psychoanalysts counselors and psychiatric social workers Explain how the media often portrays psychologists Discuss psychology as a career option including the various specialties such as clinical and counseling psychology the scientistpractitioner model the APA code of ethics and the types of research applied or basic performed Many Flavors of Psychologists 39 Psychologists Usually have master s degree or doctorate Trained in methods knowledge and theories of psychology 39 Clinical Psychologist Treats psychological problems or does research on therapies and mental disorders 39 Counseling Psychologist Treats milder emotional and behavioral disturbances More Helping Professionals Psychiatrists A medical doctor MD Usually use medications to treat problems Generally do not have extensive training in providing talk therapy Psychoanalysts Receive additional training postPhD or MD at an institute for psychoanalysis Some More Helping Professionals Counselor Advisor who helps solve problems with marriage school and so on Requires master s degree Psychiatric Social Workers Many have masters degrees and perform psychotherapy Presently a very popular profession Not all psychologists perform therapy ms W l39sy nagy an 0mm 1 x Cummmg quot1 my 5 Exurrinenlnl mm uImy rcsmrch m In Hm I 4 Hum z n rxlumunmt w lenslmlununuulmu 21 Upwlopnwnhl m Saul m yuusmmk 1 Where Psydlolugisls Work m Puma mm 29 ul vg unwu hus aw Cher 14 Hnspimu Hmr aw School I w Mm ax Human macs mm Ppw mmnl L Whal Psylhulugisb Du Plimary Auivity arm Menm mm Ma39s nu Dlhw w and 4 Wm psymmm mm lt mhlnumul mm um mm 39 Ahhmngmuznh hummmn awmmnh cgnuahmmu Module 15 Learning Objectives The Psychology Experiment List and describe the three essential variables of the experimental method Explain the nature and purpose of the control group and the experimental group in an experiment as well as the purpose of randomly assigning subjects to these two groups Describe three areas of ethical concern in behavioral research Listthe basic ethical guidelines for psychological researchers Describe what a placebo is and why it is used in an experiment Explain how the singleblind and doubleblind experimental approaches control for the placebo effect and the experimenter effect respectively Discuss the selffulfilling prophecy Experiments To identify causeandeffect relationships we conduct experiments Directly vary a condition you might think affects behavior Create two or more groups of subjects alike in all ways except the condition you are varying Record whether varying the condition has any effect on behavior Variables Independent Variable Conditions altered by the experimenter experimenter sets their size amount or value these are suspected causes for behavioral differences Dependent Variable Demonstrates effects that independent variables have on behavior Extraneous Variables Conditions that a researcher wants to prevent from affecting the outcomes of the experiment eg number of hours slept before the experiment Groups Experimental Group The group of participants that gets the independent variable Control Group The group of participants that does NOT get the independent variable Random Assignment Participant has an equal chance of being in either the experimental or control group Random assignment controls for subject I differences I Experimental comml group group Study and testing Identical conditions Study and testing conditions 0 C0mr0l eXtranEBOUS n conditions variables Music Nu included Independent variable music Cause BEhaVior Dependent variable I Behavior tESt SCOI ES Effect test scores is there a difference wan Cam sLssmmv TABLE 15 Basic Ethical VGuidElineis foriPsycoloical Researchers Do no harm Accurately describe risks to potential participants Ensurethat participation is voluntary Minimize any discomfort to participants Maintain confidentiality Do not unnecessarily invade privacy Use deception only when absolutely necessary Remove any misconceptions caused by deception debrief Provide results and interpretations to participants Treat participants with dignity and respect a Wadswnrm Genuine Leaminu Placebo Placebo Afake pill sugar injection saline or condition Placebos alter our expectations about our own emotional and physical reactions Placebo Effect Changes in behavior that result from expectations that a drug or other treatment will have some effect These expectancies then influence bodily activities Experiment Types Single Blind Only the subjects have no idea whether they get real treatment or placebo Double Blind The subjects AND the experimenters have no idea whether the subjects get real treatment or placebo Best type of experiment if properly set UP Experimenter Effects Changes in behavior caused by the unintended influence of the experimenter Robert Rosenthal 1973 SelfFulfilling Prophecy A prediction that leads people to act in ways to make the prediction come true PLAY VIDEO Module 16 Learning Objectives NonExperimental Research Methods Explain the use of nonexperimental methods of research Describe naturalistic observation and its advantages and limitations including the concepts of observer effect observer bias and anthropomorphic error Define the term observation record Describe a correlational study its advantages and limitations how a correlation coefficient is expressed and what it means and why correlation does NOT demonstrate causation Briefly describe the clinical method of research or case study method including when it is used and its advantages and limitations Briefly describe the use of the survey method including its advantages and limitations and the new use of Internet surveys Define the terms population representative sample random selection biased sample and courtesy bias Naturalistic Observation Observing a person or an animal in the natural environmental context Provides descriptions of behavior eg Jane Goodall Naturalistic Observation Problems Observer Effect Changes in behavior caused by an awareness of being observed Observer Bias Occurs when observers see what they expect to see or record only selected details Anthropomorphic Error Attributing human thoughts feelings or motives to animals especially as a way of explaining their behavior eg Java my dog is acting like that because he s feeling depressed today Correlational Studies Determine the degree of a relationship between two events measures or variables Correlation Coefficient Statistic ranging from 100 to 100 39the sign indicates the direction of the relationship Closer the statistic is to 100 or to 100 the stronger the relationship Correlation of 000 demonstrates no relationship between the variables Correlations Continued Positive Correlation Increases in one variable are matched by increases in the other variable eg high school grades and college grades Negative Correlation Increases in one variable are matched by decreases in the other variable eg hours playing video games and grades Correlation does not demonstrate causation Just because two variables are related does NOT mean that one variable causes the other to occur Correlation 4 Strenglllolrela onship gt B 1 ct Medium No mlatlonsh39p Medium negative negative positive Dositive reialiunship relationship relationship relationship rawmwurh cum Wm The Clinical Method Case Study lndepth focus of all aspects of a single person Natural Clinical Tests Natural events such as accidents that provide psychological data Survey Method Using public polling techniques to answer psychological questions People in a representative sample are asked carefully worded questions Representative Sample Small groupthat accurately reflects a larger population Population Entire group of animals or people belonging to a particular category eg all married women Some Problems Internet Surveys Web based research Low cost and can reach many people Samples are not representative Courtesy Bias Problem in research A tendency to give polite or socially desirable answers TABLE I umpar n of Psychoqu al Research Malnuds ADVANTAGES D SA DVA NTAGES Naturalistic 39 39 39 39 um u Daservatian nMainm are mined be biased unsss cannnl he conuusmly idgntilia CHUEIFMHIIE 39 39 39 Method he used In lab Ile or quotsham se inq cidenta tause39and39elled relationships alum be Lvnllmled Experimental 39 39 39 39 39 Method 39 natura event anjenlnnsr Clinical Take advantage at mural dinical mar and allow investigatinn Lima m no cumulus nussme noes n01 pmwde a cunlml cf ravear unusual nrublems or wants qvou fur mmparisun subjsctwe inlerurelamn 5 often necessary a xinule case may be mis eadmu ur unrznrasinlame survey Method say ur saywha hev do wmmm mam LeavmW Module 13 Learning Objectives Psychology in Action Psychology in the Media 39 List the suggestions from the textbook authors that will help you become a more critical reader of psychological information in the popular press Separating Fact from Fiction Be skeptical Consider the source of information Ask yourself Was there a control group Look for errors in distinguishing between correlation and causation Separating Fact from Fiction Continued Be sure to distinguish between observation and inference eg Robert is crying but do we know why he is crying Beware of oversimplifications especially those motivated by monetary gain Remember for example is no proof Chapter 2 Brain and Behavior Module 21 Learning Objectives Neurons and the Nervous System Name the basic unit that makes up the nervous system state what it is specifically designed to do and list and describe its four arts Explain how a nerve impulse action potential occurs including how quickly it occurs and how it is an allornothing event Describe the concepts of resting potential threshold ion channels and negative afterpotential Describe how nerve impulses are carried from one neuron to another contrastthis communication with an action potential and include an explanation of receptor sites types of neurotransmitters the types and functions of neuropeptides neural networks plasticity neurogenesis and the potential for brain repair Module 21 Learning Objectives Neurons and the Nervous System Continued Differentiate a nerve from a neuron and explain the functions of myelin and neurilemma Chart the various subparts ofthe human nervous system and explain their functions describe the progress being made in repairing neurons in the central nervous system CNS and ways to prevent injury to the CNS Describe the spinal cord and explain the mechanism of the reflex arc including the types of neurons involved Neuron and Its Parts 39 Neuron Individual nerve cell 100 billion in brain 39 Dendrites Receive messages from other neurons 39 Soma Cell body body of the neuron 39 Axon Carries information away from the cell body 39 Axon Terminals Branches that link the dendrites and soma of other neurons Synups hue g 26 I39m an enlmgcd View Oll erunumn gt quot V I 94quot Axon elmmals wolm Neutilcrrma Sun 1 39 ml hudyl Nerve Impulse Axon colmem branch Myenn 5mm News all ber 4 Axcn Dendriles wmwom amnummu The Nerve Impulse Resting Potential Electrical charge of an inactive neuron Approximately 70mV Threshold Trigger point for a neuron s firing About 50mV Action Potential Nerve impulse Allornothing event Ac n pmential Resting Polpptlal 71mm Time a wmmrm cam Lemma More on Nerves Ion Channels Tiny holes in the axon membrane that allow Na and K to pass through Negative AfterPotential When a neuron is less willing to fire Synapse Microscopic space between two neurons over which messages pass Axon L n its resting state Ihe axon has a negauve y charged inkrim 2 Durmg an armorI potcnnalr posnncly Anion Potemia charged awms Ions ru h lnm me axon This riei39ly Lhanges the elecmcal charge msidc the axon from negauvc m posikivc Simullaneuusly the charge amide the axon becomes negative 1 Tbs anion pmnnviar advnnrm a positive and negatzve charges reverse in I mavmg zone uF EIECUICEII acnvlly that nuspp down hp mmn Auiun puisnlid Amen potenllal er an action potenlial passes posilive runs Iapidly ow out of the nxun l0 quickly restore its nega ive charger An nulward new of additional posniva rnns relurm the axon to Its resting slate a warm Gunmanan Action potential Action potential Axon repolarizes awaswnm Cumu mm Neurotransmitters Chemicals that alter activity in neurons chemical communication between neurons Dopamine Muscle control Acetylcholine 39Activates muscles Receptor Site Areas on the surface of neurons and other cells that are sensitive to neurotransmitters or hormones Presynaptic axon terminal Synaptic gap Synaptic 39 I ves39c e Neurotransmi er Postsynaptic dendrite ammm Wm LIan Psychoactive Drugs Normal Synaptic Transmission of Dopamine PLAY VIDEO Neural Regulators Neuropeptides Brain chemicals that regulate activity of other neurons Enkephalins Relieve pain and stress similar to endorphins Endorphins Released by pituitary gland also help to relieve pain Pacebos raise endorphin levels Psychoactive Drugs Interaction of Endorphins amp Opiates Endorphin Receptor PLAY VIDEO Neural Networks Each neuron receives messages from many other neurons Messages from other neurons may be Excitatory Inhibitory Messages are combined before a neuron decides to fire its allornothing action potential PLAY VIDEO Brain Plasticity The capacity of our brains to change in response to experience Neural networks constantly changing New synapses form and grow stronger Other connections weaken or die Neurogenesis The brain grows new neurons to replace neurons that die daily Raises hope for repairing brain damage Neurons and Nerves Nerves Large bundles of axons Myelin Fatty layer of tissue that coats axons Multiple Sclerosis MS occurs when myelin layer is destroyed numbness weakness and paralysis occur Neurons and Nerves Continued Neurilemma Thin layer of cells wrapped around axons outside brain and spinal cord forms a tunnel that damaged fibers can follow as they repair themselves Subparts of the Nervous System Central Nervous System CNS Brain and spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System PNS All parts ofthe nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord Two Divisions of the Peripheral Nervous System Somatic Nervous System SNS Links spinal cord with body and sense organs controls voluntary behavior Autonomic Nervous System ANS Serves internal organs and glands controls automatic functions such as heart rate and blood pressure Two Divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System Sympathetic Arouses body emergency system Fight or flight Parasympathetic Quiets body most active after an emotional event nwmmmmunm Parasympathetic Sympathetic avmmm CmumaLegmmn The Spinal Cord Spinal Nerves 31 of them carry sensory and motor messages to and from the spinal cord Cranial Nerves 12 pairs that leave the brain directly without passing through the spinal cord also work to communicate messages The Spinal Cord and Behavior Reflex Arc Simplest behavior in which a stimulus provokes an automatic response Sensory Neuron Nerve cell that carries messages from the senses toward the CNS Motor Neuron Cell that carries commands from the CNS to the muscles and glands Effector Cells Cells of muscle fiber capable of producing a response Cell body of sensury neuron Sensnry quotHuron Spi n 3 arms I curd sedirm Motor neuron Muscle cell res by contrain Sensory Stimulus to skin mwmmunn Camus 2an Moduie 23 Learning Objectives Brain Research 39 Define biopsychology describe techniques used to map brain structures and brain functions 39 Discuss how these techniques have been used to detect and understand brain disorders brain efficiency and even behaviors such as lying Mapping Brain Structure Computed Tomographic Scanning CT Computerenhanced Xray ofthe brain or body Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI Uses a strong magnetic field not an Xray to produce an image of the brain and body 336 0325 5222 Mapping Brain Function Clinical Case Studies Examine changes in personality behavior or sensory capacity caused by brain disease or injuries Ablation Surgical removal of tissue Mapping Brain Function Continued Deep Lesioning A thin wire electrode is lowered into a specific area inside the brain Electrical current is then used to destroy a small amount of brain tissue Electrical Stimulation of the Brain ESB When an electrode is used to activate target areas in the brain Stimulation electrode Deep lesioning electrode 39 Surgical ablation 9mm ccrnm imam More Brain Imaging Techniques Electroencephalograph EEG A device that detects amplifies and records electrical activity in the brain Positron Emission Tomography PET Computergenerated color image of brain activity based on glucose consumption in the brain Functional MRI fMRl MRI that makes brain activity visible gmmm m Cm my Mum 393 i J t g quot 39 Speaking Thinking Module 23 Learning Objectives Hemispheres and Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex Describe the main differences between the brains of lower and higher animals and include a description of the cerebrum cerebral cortex gray matter and corticalization Discuss the functions of the right and left hemispheres and how a person would be affected by damage to each hemisphere including spatial neglect and the importance of soft signs Describe the work of Roger Sperry with hemispheric specialization and the split brain operation explaining how and why the brain is split and the resulting effects Describe the functions of each of the lobes ofthe brain and of the association areas including Broca s and Wernicke s areas Explain the effects of damage to each of these brain regions including the conditions of aphasia agnosia and facial agnosia Discuss the findings ofthe studies on the differences in brain structure and brain specialization in women and men Cerebral Cortex Outer layer ofthe cerebrum Cerebrum Two large hemispheres that cover upper part of the brain Corticalization Increase in size and wrinkling of the cortex Curlex Cerebruln Cerebel um N cocortex Olfactory lobe Fish Brain Neocortex Cerebellum Cewballum Human Brain OI factory obe Cerebrum Reptile Brain Widmunh can Lummn Cerebral Hemispheres Right and left halves of the cerebrum Corpus Callosum Band of fibers that connect the two cerebral hemispheres Spatial Neglect Right hemisphere stroke victims pay no attention to the left side of visual space Split Brains In split brain patients the corpus callosum is cut to control severe epilepsy seizure disorder Result The person now has two brains in one body Each hemisphere has its own separate perceptions concepts and impulses to act This operation is rare and is often used as a last resort Corpus Cerebral callosum cortex cwdmm mummm Right BrainLeft Brain Hemispheres differ in abilities Left hemisphere is better at language math judging time and rhythm and coordinating order of complex movements Processes information sequentially Right hemisphere is good at perceptual skills and at expressing and detecting other s emotions Processes information simultaneously Ophc nerve Optic chiasm crossover Lateral geniculate Imclv of ha amus Ophc radiation 37L iz Pi a39 e waxmnn Gamma Lenmlnu left Brain Righl Brain I Language I TIH39IE sense lhonverhal I Rocogm on and I ltpeerh I Rhythm lPerrrvp IIal skills axprecqinn nf Pmnlion I Writing I Ordering of complex lVisuaIizatior I Spatial skills I alcmation movements l Recognition 01 l Simple anguage panama faces comprehension me odies see nothing Right Hemisphere Left Hemisphere Wmsvmrh cam mum Cerebral Cortex Lobes 39 Areas bordered by major grooves or fissures or defined by their functions 39 Frontal Lobe Movement sense of smell higher mental functions 39 Contains motor cortex controls motor movement Contains mirror neurons 39 Become active when we perform and when we observe someone else perform the same action The Frontal Lobe PLAY VIDEO When the Brain Fails to Function Properly Association Cortex All areas of the cerebral cortex that are not primarily sensory or motor in function Aphasia Speech disturbance resulting from brain damage Broca s Area Language area related to grammar and pronunciation If damaged causes motor or expressive aphasia person knows what she wants to say but can t say the words Cerebral Cortex Lobes Continued Parietal Lobe Just above occipital bodily sensations such as touch pain and temperature somatosensory area Temporal Lobe Each side of the brain auditory and language centers Wernicke s Area Wernicke s Area Related to language comprehension in left temporal lobe If damaged causes receptive or fluent aphasia Person has problems with meanings of words NOT pronunciation The Parietal Lobe PLAY VIDEO The Temporal Lobe PLAY VIDEO Cerebral Cortex Lobes Continued Occipital Lobe Back of brain vision center Visual Agnosia Caused by damage to association areas on occipital lobe Cannot perceive meaning of objects Facial Agnosia Aform of visual agnosia Cannot perceive familiar faces Frontal lobe sense of self motor control and higher mental abilities such as reasoning and planning parietal lobe sensation such as touch temperature and pressure Occipital lobe visioni Temporal lobe hearin and languggev Cerebellum 39 posture coordination muscle lone and memory of skills and habits I wanna Gem mn my mmnrnma Plel39lumx39 Arm Hmm39s mm mm mum m r vmlo llum awmmm CumIn lezmml Module 24 Learning Objectives Subcortex and Endocrine System List the three areas of the subcortex and explain the function of each of the following parts of the subcortex the midbrain the hindbrain brainstem including the medulla the pons the cerebellum and the reticular formation and the forebrain including the thalamus and the hypothalamus List the structures that comprise the limbic system Explain the overall functions ofthis system as well as the specific functions ofthe amygdala and the hippocampus Describe the significance of the pleasure and aversive areas in the limbic system Module 24 Learning Objectives Subcortex and Endocrine System Continued Summarize the brain s basic functions Explain how changing one s mind can change one s brain Describe the latest brain research to aid paralyzed patients Explain the purpose of the endocrine system the action of hormones and the effects that the following glands have on the body and behavior pituitary include a description of giantism dwarfism and acromegaly pineal thyroid include a description of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism adrenal medulla and adrenal cortex include a description of virilism premature puberty and the problem of anabolic steroids Subcortex All brain structures below cerebral cortex immediately below cerebral hemispheres Divided into the hindbrain midbrain and forebrain Hindbrain Brainstem 39 Mainly consists of medulla and cerebellum 39 Medulla Connects brain with the spinal cord and controls vital life functions such as heart rate and breathing 39 Pons Bridge Acts as a bridge between brainstem and other structures influences sleep and arousal 39 Cerebellum Located at base of brain regulates posture muscle tone and muscular coordination Subcortex Reticular Formation RF Reticular Formation Fibers located inside medulla and brainstem 39Associated with alertness attention and some reflexes breathing coughing sneezing vomiting ReticularActivating System RAS Part of RF that activates cerebral cortex Its alarm clock Forebrain 39 Structures are part of Limbic System System within forebrain closely linked to emotional response and motivating behavior 39 Thalamus Relays sensory information on to the cortex switchboard 39 Hypothalamus Regulates emotional behaviors and motives eg sex hunger rage hormone release More Forebrain Structures Amygdala Associated with fear responses Hippocampus Associated with storing lasting memories helps us navigate through space Cerenmm Surfac cerebral comno Valuntary rumphank I learn ng Numbering thinking Emotion constiousness Hypa haianms Cn mrul of hunggr thlrst temperature and other visceral and bodlly func ans coordinalion of skilled mavemsnl Filuilary Gland The master glandquot m the endgame system Reticular Formation Arausal auemmm vemenl re exes Medulla Camels for cuntrul over meI Clnrd I V breathing swallowing Fowl Ccnt uct or dl ls or nolor ram I F dxgesuan hear tale 5 Midbmiquot and sense mpu ses Ioal rmpr rp l x arr Hmduraln ammn cum bumn Cingulate gyms Mammillary body Thalamus Hippocampus llypothalamus Amygdala ammwonn CznulnaLumnn Endocrine System Glands that pour chemicals hormones directly into the bloodstream or lymph system Hormones affect internal activities and visible behavior Pituitary Gland Master gland Regulates growth via growth hormone Pituitary Problems Too little means person will be smaller than average Hypopituitary Dwarfs 39As adults perfectly proportioned but tiny Treatable by using growth hormone will add a few inches Treatment is long and expensive Pituitary Problems Continued Too much growth hormone leads to giantism excessive body growth Acromegaly Enlargement of arms hands feet and facial bones due to too much growth hormone released late in growth period 39Andre the Giant Pituitary also governs functioning of thyroid adrenals and gonads Pi 1y gland 7 tintluunnes gruwlh and lactation also regulatts the aatvity at other glands myroid gland i regulates the rate of metabolism tn the body Adrenal lands and affect zoxual funcn nningt Pancleas releases insulin to regulale blond sugar and hunger Tesles tsecrete testosterone wltlch influences male sexual function Ovaries secrete eslrugen which In uences female sexual uncticm i a Wadxvmm 5mm Lhth The Pineal Gland Regulates body rhythms and sleep cycles Releases hormone melatonin which responds to daily variations in light The Thyroid Gland Thyroid In neck regulates metabolism Hyperthyroidism Overactive thyroid person tends to be thin tense excitable nervous Hypothyroidism Underactive thyroid person tends to be inactive sleepy slow obese The Adrenal Glands Adrenals Arouse body regulate salt balance adjust body to stress regulate sexual functioning located on top of kidneys Releases epinephrine and norepinephrine also known as adrenaline and noradrenalin Epinephrine arouses body is associated with fear Norepinephrine arouses body is linked with anger The Adrenal Glands Continued Adrenal Medulla Source of epinephrine and norepinephrine Adrenal Cortex Produces hormones known as corticoids Regulate salt balance Deficiency in some types will cause powerful salt cravings in humans Adrenal Problems Oversecretion of adrenal sex hormones can cause virilism exaggerated male characteristics Bearded woman May also cause premature puberty if occurs early in life Moduie 23 Learning Objectives Psychology in Action Handedness Are you dexterous or sinister 39 Discuss brain dominance lateralization and handedness including their relationship to language processing 39 Discuss how and when the dominant hemisphere is determined and the incidence advantages and disadvantages of being rightor lefthanded or inconsistent in dominance Handedness Preference for right or left hand in most activities Sidedness Measured by assessing hand foot eye and ear preference Dominant Hemisphere Term usually applied to the side of the human brain that produces language Handedness Continued Hand preferences are obvious before birth but may be influenced by environmental factors Lefties are better at visualizing 3D objects Lateralization Specialization in abilities of brain hemispheres Entire Populalian Righthamlets Left 94 Left 97 my 5 31 Idleral 1 a u mmm cam mm Righl 3 Left 18 aimandquot Right19 Simeml 12 L2 Straight Left Straight Right Hooked Right mmrn mam Inuan
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