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by: Burnice Carter DVM

DevelopmentalPsychology PSY220

Marketplace > Central Michigan University > Psychlogy > PSY220 > DevelopmentalPsychology
Burnice Carter DVM
GPA 3.72


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Class Notes
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Burnice Carter DVM on Monday October 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY220 at Central Michigan University taught by NancyHartshorne in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see /class/218940/psy220-central-michigan-university in Psychlogy at Central Michigan University.


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Date Created: 10/05/15
Marked impairments in social interaction Lack normal interest in social contact don t seek or enjoy affection and seem aloof and alone Deficits in language development and imaginative activity fail to develop language or show a range of language abnormalities May repeat phrases or fail to use pronouns and you appropriately also lack imaginative play Restricted scope of activities and interests often obsessed with sameness and show rigid repetitive behavior Drawn to small detail and may be mesmerized by objects Mental retardation is present in about 75 of cases yet some children have above average IQ scores Autistic disorder and other conditions involving autistic features are autism spectrum disorders 1 Autistic disorder 2 Cases that show some but not all of the features of autistic disorder 3 A condition called Asperger syndrome Children with asperger syndrome have restricted interests and trouble navigating social interactions 4 Early childhood disintegrative disorder 5 Rett s Autismhard to make sense of world around them no known cause or cure Life long brain disorder Sensoryhypersensitive extra sensitive to 5 senses hard to focus things out of their orientation or hyposensitive don t have enough sensitivity Can be selfabusive and don t feel the pain Benefit from pressure weighted blanket or jacket calms them Lack pragmatic skillsturn taking interrupting not being able to follow a change in topic Stereotypical behaviors hand flapping rocking spinning objects lack of eye contact Can be confused or coexist with autism spectrum disorder Bipolar emotional impairment adhd seizure disorders low immune health 1150 have it 194 boys 45 boys worldwide epidemic Expectancy is 146 by 2020 Aspergerslower stage poor social and verbal skills very focused Pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified PDDNOS Autism Early childhood disintegrative disorder Rett s syndromegenetic mentally challenged wringing their hands constantly Savantbrilliant in one area Therapiesapplied behavior analysis speech and language occupational social work biomedical DAN protocolmanipulate diet psychological medications Best place to learn is in a least restrictive environment lDA s mainstreaming policy schools are required to teach students with disabilities in regular classrooms with support alongside non disabled peers Parents looked down upon Professionalseducators are uneducated Schools are overcrowded professional caseloads are maxed out and working with outdated information 3 areas of impairments social relationships communication and behavior Noticed before age 3 Prfile to early childhood ages 36 years Physical growth Slow and steady growth 45 pounds and 26 inches a year Body mass index changes Formula for weight adjusted for height Weight lbheight in x 703 Growth patterns can identify irregularities Skeletal changes occur have a more mature look Lower jaw is more pronounced and bodies are more proportionate Growth hormone deficiency means age related changes in bmi continue to go down while obesity goes UP Motor Control Fundamental motor skills Not learned in all or none fashion Manipulation and writing Finger dexterity and speed improve rapidly during preschool years but continue through early elementary school 566 years variety of holding grips Hand preference stabilizes mostly R handed 75 by 34 90 by age 6 Boys behind girls in fine motor skills messy writing versus neat writing Motor Problems Developmental coordination disorder condition in which motor clumsiness impairs daily selfhelp skills or achievements Children with motor problems explore less on play equipment Have fewer social interactions than peers Are less popular Often problems with anxiety and social skills Often coincide with language problems Associated with later academic difficulties Organized sports Recommendations based on developmental needs of children Don t rush them don t over structure young children s time emphasize hands on learning consult a health professional needs a lot of time for explorative play and day cares are good for play Brain development Age 2 brain is 75 of adult size by age 5 90 of adult size Much pruning makes brain more efficient vision auditory perception and language hearing improves Young children can t hear you when the tv is on Brain volume increases Myelination axon maturation dendrite development increase in supportive cells like glial Affects behavior and cognitive development Growth spurts occur at different times and places in the brain Huge burst in brain development Preschool L hemisphere corpus callosum circuits related to planning and conception Creativity R hemisphere increases M Visual development slow during preschool compared to infancy Grated acuity between 4 and 6 smallest black and white stripes Contrast sensitivity between 6 and 15 smallest differences in brightness Many immaturities in visual system Need visual checkups every other year from age3 Amblyopia and other conditions Lazy eye patch the good eye so the other one has to work harder Tend to use only visual cues for balance until 46 years Balancevisualness uses joints labrynth in auditory system semicircular canals 3 Trouble with directions spatial ability isn t strong enough L side develops faster Hearing Fine tuned during early to middle childhood Age 6 ability to detect high notes like adults Don t detect low notes as well until age 10 To react children need bigger difference in loudness between background noise and signal Increases in preschool stabilizes around 15 years Hearing loss is often unnoticed Test every year if hearing impairments run in the family Test newborns for deafness By 1 shold be able to hear you even with tvmusic on Auditory brainstem response testtest for deafness in babies Perceptual Learning Process by which one learns to attend process or interpret perceptual information Aids in detecting complication relationships prepares for school Affordances fits between characteristic of environment and opportunity for action Perceptual invariants features that stay the same Taking it in not just hearing it Perceptual invariants something is the same now matter how you turn it Affordances beds afford lying down no bed you don t lie down no chair you don t sit Early Reading Visual perceptual learning essential for reading process as children learn invariant features Phonological phonemic awareness is best predictor of learning to read Knowledge of sound structure of spoken words lncludes rhyming blending sounds to make a word segmenting words Exposure to language activities prepares children for school and reading Teach sounds of letters helps them to read instead of names of letters Read to kids teach them how to hold books Piaget39s Preoperational Stage Believed young children lack basic abilities necessary for mental operations The ability to manipulate mental symbols versus objects Period from about 27 years when thinking is centered appearance bound static irreversible and Egocentric unaware that other have feelings perceptions or ideas different from their own Can t ask them 22 see only concretely not abstractly Centered can only think of one thing at a time Appearance bound what they see depicts their thought process Put a dress on a baby doll and it becomes a girl take it off it s a boy Static Kids think only what they currently see and can t think beyond that lrreversible can t change thinking inside head Piagets tasks Serration put them in order from smallest to tallest Class inclusion are there more of this animal or the other one Appearance reality what animal is this Perspective taking what does dolly see Updating piaget39s theory Researchers who have modified piaget s tasks conclude that children show many mental competencies earlier than Piaget thought Especially when familiar objects and wording is used in tasks Older children even adults sometimes fail his problems Children do have their own characteristic age related ways of thinking Information processing Characteristic thinking due to processing limitations in mental systems involved in attending remembering and reasoning Attention develops with age Includes focus and attentional switching Young children have short attention spans Preschoolers have difficulty switching focus of attention Age related changes in attention The amount of time children spend away from the table during a 10 videotape of a puppet show decreased dramatically from 24 years while the amount of time they spend looking at the videotape increased Development of visual scanning Eye movements from a 5 year old middle and a 65 year old right show where these two children looked before saying a pair of houses was llthe same Children 6 years and older use a more systematic approach Developmental memory changes An expanding knowledge base Increased speed of processing Improved inhibition and resistance to inference Better use of memory strategies Component of metamemory awareness of and knowledge about memory Intelligence correlates with memory span Memory improves with experience Increasing vocabulary and process language faster Interferenceread a list and ask them to repeat they may associate words with others like cat and dog and add them to the list 7 2 working memory Remember 1 item for every year they re old 3 remember 3 numbers Types of Memom Explicit birthdays places things Episodic associated with particular time place or circumstance Semantic storehouse of word and information about world sun is yellow dogs have 4 legs lmproves with age lmplicit lncludes conditioned responses habits and learned procedures Differ less across children and adults Knowing hot to drive write ride a bike walk for young children Long term memory for circus day The different long term memory systems shown here record different types of information and have different patterns of development Episodic and semantic memory Episodic has degrees of detail Verbatim memory traces Exactly what happened gist memory traces generally what happened Source monitoring not very developed Ability to identify source of memories Semantic memory includes script memories for typical features of repeated experiences More likely to remember things important to them that map onto what they already know or that they encounter more than once Becoming symbol minded Understanding symbol artifacts is gradual process Children younger than 3 lack Dual representation ability to mentally represent a model as an object and as a symbol that stands for something else Representational insight understanding that a scale model stands for something else Cognitive Changes Theory of mine develops between 35 Understanding that other people have thoughts desires and intentions Older infants recognize difference between people and objects yet by preschool don t always think logically about mental life often fail falsebelief problems Think others know what they know but can be taught otherwise Can t see from someone else s perspective Cognitive flexibility and abstraction developing components of executive processing Cognitive flexib it Most 3 year olds understand abstract dimensions and can pick 2 cards that are alike in some way from the cards on the let but it will be years before they can flexibly shift their focus from one abstract dimension to the next Language Development Speakingpronunciation errors follow predictable rules Children should be evaluated when language problems persist Adults should set relaxed tone Vocabulary and syntax may be confused over short common and easy words Don t understand next fall next week only get simple words Semantic Development Children s understanding of world meaning Likely to be misunderstood prepositions tempora words kinship terms Children have incomplete understandings of syntax rules for combing words and meaningful units like s and ed Pronouns are hard everyone is he or she Becoming a Conversationalist Still developing pragmatics the uses of language in a social context Learning that how something is said is as important as what is said Becoming more sensitive to social situations Still difficulty keeping conversation on topic Important to help children learn conversational skills since socially competent children are better liked Self Regulation Skills involved in monitoring and controlling thoughts emotions and behaviors Lots of individual differences lmproves dramatically during preschool years Self control predicts later behavioral and peer problems 39 39 and Social quot 39 Erikson s lnitiative versus Guilt stage Age 36 years Compare themselves to other and want to master what others have mastered Feedback received determines If they feel worthy or if they feel guilty for inadequate behavior Need help and positive feedback to get through this stage Don t have control over their outward emotions no self control Full range of emotions but display differently than adults 200 times a day Difference between adults and preschoolers are 1 what they are emotional about and 2 how well they control their outward expressions of emotion They get upset about everything Concepts of Self and others Preschoolers don t yet have mature sense of individual identity using name instead of me or I Still developing temporarily extended self view of the self that connects information about oneself over time They can t talk about themselves at different points in time Marked changes in this by 45 years old then llmomma tell me again about when l was a baby 45 yesterday and tomorrow learn they had s elf before and will later Concepts of Self and Others 2 Describe self in physical concrete terms rather than psychological brown hair versus funny Overestimate what they can do and what they know Even when regarding a task theyjust failed Concepts of self and others 3 Youthful optimismcompared to adults view others socially relevant traits as less stable over time more likely to believe peoples characteristics will change in a positive way someone s missing finger will grow back May help with learning if they believed their failure to ride a bike wasn t changeable they d stop trying Moral Development Over terrible 2 s Aware of behavioral standards by 3 birthday Piaget proposed 3 stages Premoralbirth through 5 little concern about rules Morality of constraint between 57 years respect rules but view as absolute Friends may fight because they have each learned a different set of rules Focus more on consequences Morality of cooperation 1011 with 710 being a transitional period focus more on intentions Social Relationships Increasingly test social skills with friends imaginary companions and siblings After 3 birthday more involves in complex social pretend play plan and negotiate sequences of symbolic interactions tea party for stuffed bear May step out of the script to change plan or correct another child Early complex play can predict later social competence Importance of Preschool Friendships Friends provide support and intimacy by 4 they disclose more the friends than nonfriends Interactions with friends help children master social interactions They give opportunities to learn about llgetting along Friends help children learn about people who aren t like themselves The younger the child the more likely to develop cross culture or cross gender friendships Imaginary Companions 21 of parents report child having imaginary friend 21 report child having personified object stuffed animal or blanket Why invent imaginary companions Not to have perfect companions Not to compensate for social awkwardness lack of other friends or escape stress Often firstborns or those who spend a lot of time alone but not always Companions may be a way to experiment with or practice new social knowledge or relationships Act differently with friends versus parents versus personified objects Sibling Relationships Unpredictable lots of jealousy 254 years apart is the best age gap for kids Most act more mature when new child arrives though some display more behavior problems Some are loving and cooperative others are hostile and competitive Gender temperament age parental behavior and personality all contribute Can be more conflictridden than friendships Up to 7 conflicts per hour on average Conflict gives chance to practice social skills Understanding Preschoolers Children are both highly reliable and highly unreliany witnesses Try to answer most questions even if they have to guess Don t always understand interviews questions Have limited attention spans and difficulty staying focuses Interviewers often misunderstood their speech and feedback information children didn t report More practical to determine when they re reliably than if they are May make something up just to answer if not interrogated correctly can get confused and say things that didn t happen Tips for talking to preschoolers bUJNH U39I Start conversations with an open ended question Encourage children to describe events in their own words Avoid misleading questions that add information children haven t reported Repeat the topic of the conversation frequently Young children often get distracted and being speaking about different events than the one you think they re describing Don t assume that children are using words the way you would for example uncle may mean aunt or potato may mean tomato


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