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by: Burnice Carter DVM

PsychologyofAdvertising PSY337

Marketplace > Central Michigan University > Psychlogy > PSY337 > PsychologyofAdvertising
Burnice Carter DVM
GPA 3.72


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Class Notes
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Burnice Carter DVM on Monday October 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY337 at Central Michigan University taught by AnnalynJacob in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see /class/218943/psy337-central-michigan-university in Psychlogy at Central Michigan University.


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Date Created: 10/05/15
Study Guide for Test 4 CH 1516 amp SPENT 12 13 Rites of Passage 0 RITES OF PASSAGE rituals we perform to mark a change in social status I Every society both primitive and modern set aside times for these changes I Some occur as a natural part of our life cycles 0 Eg puberty or death I Others are more individual 0 Eg getting divorced and reentering the dating market 0 CONSIST IN 3 STAGES I l SEPARATION detach from original group or status 0 EX high school kid detaches and leaves home for campus I 2 LIMINALITY middle stage in limbo between statuses 0 Trying to nd way around campus during orientation I 3 AGGREGATION returns to society with new status 0 EX Our hero returns home for Thanksgiving break as a cocky college veteran Culture and Dimensions of Cultural Variability o CULTURE is society s personality 0 It includes both abstract ideas such as values and ethics and material objects and services such a automobiles clothing food art and sports a society produces o The accumulation of shared meanings rituals norms and traditions among the members of an organization or society I Consumption choices cannot be understood without cultural context I A consumer s culture determines the priorities the consumer attaches to activities and products 0 Functional Areas of a Cultural System I ECOLOGY o The way in which a system is adapted to its habitat shaped by technology used to distribute resources I EX Japanese greatly value products that make ef cient use of space because of the cramped conditions in their urban centers I SOCIAL STRUCTURE o The way in which orderly social life is maintained o This includes domestic and political grups that dominate the culture I Ex The nuclear family versus the extended family representative government versus dictatorship I IDEOLOGY 0 Mental characteristics of a people and the way they relate to their environment and social groups 0 Members of a culture tend to share ideas abot principles of order and fairness 0 They also share an ethos or a set of moral and aesthetic principles 0 DIMENSIONS OF CULTURAL VARIABILITY o 1 POWER DISTANCE the way members perceive differences in power when they form interpersonal relationships I Some cultures emphasize strict vertical relationships 0 Eg Japan I Whereas others stress a greater degree for equality and informality o E g United States 0 2 UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE the degree to which people feel threatened by ambiguous situations and have beliefs and institutions that help them to avoid this uncertainty 0 Eg Organized Religion 3 MASCULINITYFEMINITY the degree to which a culture clearly defines sex roles I Traditional societies are more likely to possess very explicitly rules about the acceptable behaviors of men and women 0 Such as who is responsible for certain tasks within the family unit 4 INDVIDUALISM the extent to which the culture values the welfare of the individual versus that of the group I COLLECTIVIST CULTURES people subordinate their personal goals to those of a stable ingroup O O 0 Stress values such as selfdiscipline and accepting one s position in life 0 Ex Venezuela Taiwan Greece and Portugal I INDIVIDUALIST CULTURES attach more importance to personal goals and people are more likely to change memberships when the demands of the group become too costly o E g workplace church etc o Emphasize personal enjoyment excitement equality and freedom 0 Ex US Australia Great Britain Canada MYTHS o MYTH is a story with symbolic elements that represents a culture s ideals o The story often focuses on some kind of con ict between two opposing forces and its outcome serves as a moral guide for listeners I In this way the myth reduces anxiety because it provides consumers with guidelines about their world I Most members of a culture learn these stories but usually we don t really think about their origins 0 Ex Little Red Riding Hood 0 Corporations often have myths and legends in their history and some make a deliberate effort to teach them to newcomers I Ex Story of Nike waf e sole 0 The stories emphasize the dedication of runners and coaches to reinforce the importance of teamwork o MYTHS SERVE FOUR INTERRELATION FUNCTIONS IN A CULTURE o 1 METAPHYSICAL they help to explain the origins of existence 0 2 COSMOLOGICAL they emphasize that all components of the universe are part of a single picture 0 3 SOCIOLOGICAL they maintain social order because they authorize a social code for members of a culture to follow 0 4 PSYCHOLOGICAL they provide models for personal conduct 0 BINARY OPPOSITION represents two opposing ends of some dimension 0 Technique used when analyzing myths to examine underlying structures I Ex Good versus evil nature versus technology 0 Advertisers sometimes define products in terms of what they are NOT rather than what they are I Eg This is NOT your father s Oldsmobile I can t believe it s NOT real butter 0 MYTHS AROUND IN MODERN POPULAR CULTURE o CONSUMER FAIRTALES some people tell stories that include magical agents donors and helpers to overcome villains and obstacles as they seek out goods and services in their quest for happy endings 0 Ex Disney World fairytale princess wedding 0 Comic book superheroes demonstrate how a culture communicates myths to consumers of all ages 0 Ex Spiderman character tells stories about how he balances the obligations of being a superhero with the ned of his alter ego Peter to succeed in school and have a normal love life 0 MONOMYTH fundamental properties of a myth that are common to many cultures I Ex Superman 7 a father gives his only son to save a world with his supernatural powers 0 MYTHIC BLOCKBUSTERS o GONE WITH THE WIND myths often take place in times of upheaval such as wars I The north represents technology and democracy battles the south which represents nature and aristocracy Movie paints picture of a lost era where man and nature existed in harmony ET THE EXTRATERRESTRIAL ET represents afarniliar myth involving 0 messianic visitation I The gentle creature from another world visits Earth and performs miracles o Eg he revives a dying ower I His disciples are neighborhood children they help him combat the forces of modern technology and an unbelieving secular society I The myth teaches that the humans God chooses are pure and unsel sh 0 STAR TREK links to myths such as the story of the New England Puritans who explore and conquer a new continent 7 The final frontier I Some episodes also employed the theme of a quest for paradise RITUALS o RITUAL is a set of multiple symbolic behaviors that occurs in a fixed sequence and is repeated periodically o RITUAL ARTIFACTS Items needed to perform rituals such as wedding rice birthday candles diplomas specialized food and beverages trophies and plaques band uniforms greeting cards and retirement watches 0 GROOMING RITUALS Sequences of behaviors that aid in the transition from the private self to the public self or back again 0 GIFT GIVING RITUALS we procure the perfect object meticulously remove the price tag carefully wrap the object where we symbolically change the item from a commodity to a unique good and deliver it to the recipient I ECONOMIC EXCHANGE The giver transfers an item of value to a recipient who in turn is somehow obligated to reciprocate I SYMBOLIC EXCHANGE When a giver wants to acknowledge intangible support and companionship o GIFT GIVING RITUAL PROCEEDS IN THREE DISTINCT STAGES I l GESTATION giver procures an item to mark some event 0 This event may be either structural ie prescribed by the culture as when people buy Christmas presents 0 OR emergent ie the decision is more personal and idiosyncratic I 2 PRESENTATION or process of gift exchange 0 The recipient responds to the gift either appropriately or not and the donor evaluates this response I 3 REFORMULATION the giver and receiver redefine the bond between them either looser or tighter to re ect their new relationship after the exchange 0 Negativity can arise if the recipient feels the gift is inappropriate or of inferior quality O o RECIPROCITY NORM obliges people to return the gesture of a gift with one of equal value 0 Donor may feel the response to the gift was inadequate or insincere or a violation of this norm SELF GIFT consumer gives gift to themselves Sacred and Profane Consumption SACRED CONSUMPTION occurs when we set apart objects and events from normal activities and treat them with respect or awe 0 Note that in this context the ter sacred does not necessarily carry a religious meaning although we do tend to think of religious artifacts and ceremonies as sacred PROF ANE CONSUMPTION describes objects and events that are ordinary or everday they don t share the specialness of sacred ones 0 Note that in this context we don t equate the word profane with obscenity although the two meanings do share some similarities DOMAINS OF SACRED CONSUMPTION O O SACRED PLACES a society sets apart sacred places because they have religious or mystical significance 0 E g Bethlehem Mecca Stonehenge I Or because they commemorate some aspect of a country s heritage o Eg the Kremlin the Emperor s Palace in Tokyo Statue of Liberty Ground Zero Manhattan I Contamination makes these places sacred 7 something happened on that spot so the place itself takes on sacred qualities SACRED PEOPLE we idolize sacred people as we set them apart from the masses sometimes people believe they have superhuman abilities I Souvenirs memorabilia and even mundane items these celebrites touch acquire special meanings SACRED EVENTS sometimes public events resemble sacred religious ceremonies I Eg Fans who hold their hands over their hearts and solemnly recite the Pledge of Allegiance before a ballgame or holding up a lighter or cell phone during a rock concert Cultural Selection CULTURAL SELECTION The process by which some alternatives are selected over others by cultural gatekeepers 0 These options constantly change and evolve Process of Culture Production CULTURE PRODUCTION SYSTEMS CPS is the set of individuals and organizations that create and market a cultural product o The structure of a CPS determines the types of products it creates I Factors such as the number and diversity of competing systems and the amount of innovation versus conformity each in uence the selection of products from which choose at any point in time o A culture production system has three major subsystems I 1 CREATIVE SUBSYSTEM to generate new symbols and products I 2 MANAGERIAL SUBSYSTEM to select make tangible produce and manage the distribution of new symbols and products I 3COMMU39NICATIONS SUBSYSTEM to give meaning to the new product and provide it with a symbolic set of attributes o CULTURAL GATEKEEPERS lter the over ow of information as it travels down the funnel I Gatekeepers include movie restaurant and car reviewers interior designers disc jockeys retail buyers and magazine editors CULTURE PRODUCTION PROCESS Symbol Pool Great ve Managerial Su bsystem Subsystem Culture Production System Commu n ications Subsystem Cultural Gatekeepers Formal Gatekeepers lnformalGatekeepers Casting Directors Opinion Leaders Consumer InnovationGrass Roots Mrvement Textbook Authors Spous e Retail Buyers Family Members Restaurant Reviewers Neighbors Etc Etc l 1 Consumer Trickle Down Theory 0 TRICKLE DOWN THEORY one of the most in uential fashion perspectives 0 There are two con icting forces that drive fashion change I lSt subordinate groups adopt the status symbols of the groups above them as they attempt to climb up the ladder of social mobility 0 Dominant styles thus originate with the upper classes and trickle down to those below I 2 those people in the super ordinate groups keep a wary eye on the ladder below them to be sure followed don t imitate them 0 When lower class consumers mimic their actions they adopt new fashions to distance themselves from the mainstream 0 These two processes create a selfperpetuating cycle of changethe machine that drives fashion 0 Trickledown theory applies to a society with a stable class structure that allows us to easily identify lower versus upperclass consumers I This task is no longer so easy 0 Mass fashion replaces elite fashion because our media allows many market segments to learn about a style simultaneously 0 Trickle across effect where fashions diffuse horizontally among members of the same social group Trickle up current fashions often originate with the lower classes and go up 0 Grassroots innovators typically are people who lack prestige in the dominant culture because they are less concerned with maintaining the status quo they are free to innovate and take risks I E g Urban youth Reality Engineering REALITY ENGINEERING occurs when marketers appropriate elements of popular culture and use them as promotional vehicles CULTIVATION HYPOTHESIS PRODUCT PLACEMENT The insertion of real products in ctional movies TV shows books and plays ADVERGAMING Where online games merge with interactive advertisements that let companies target speci c types of consumers o EX DQ Tycoon lets players run their own fastfood franchise Innovation 0 INNOVATION Any product or service that consumers perceive to be new 0 May take form of an activity skateboarding clothing style EdHardy a new manufacturing technique Nike build your own shoe DIFFUSION OF INNOVATION refers to the process whereby a new product service or idea spreads through a population Sacralization SACRALIZATION occurs when ordinary objects events and even people take on sacred meaning 0 Many consumers regard evem regard events such as the Super Bowl and people like Michael Jackson as sacred Virtually anything can become sacred OBJECTIFICATION occurs when we attribute sacred qualities to mundane items such as smelly socks CONTAMINATION one way this process occurs I Where objects we associate with sacred events or people become sacred in their own rig t o This explains the desire by many fans for items that belonged to or even were touched by famous people Adoption Prerequisites 0 TYPES OF ADOPTERS LAGGARDS very slow adopters LATE ADOPTERS are somewhere inthe middle 0 These consumers are they mainstream public they are interested in new things but they do not want them to be too new EARLY ADOPTORS share many of the same characteristics as innovators but an important difference is their high degree of concern for social acceptance especially with regard to expressive products such as clothing and cosmetics 0 Generally speaking and early adopter is receptive to new syles because she is involved in the product category and she values being in fashion Wm lt9 PERCENTAGE ADIWHNG Inlmdnctinn Growth Maturity Decline BEHAVIORAL DEMANDS OF INNOVATIONS we categorize innovations by the degree to which they demand adopters to change their behavior 0 3 major types of innovations refer in a relative sense to the amount of disruption or change they bring to people lives 0 1 CONTINUOUS INNOVATION is a modi cation of an existing product 0 The company makes small changes to position the product add line extensions or merely to alleviate consumer boredom I Such as when General Mills introduces a honey nut version of Cheerios 0 Most product innovations are of this type they are evolutionary rather then revolutionary o 2 DYNAMICALLY CONTINUOUS INNOVATION is a signi cant change to an existing product 0 3 DISCONTINUOUS INNOVATION creates really big changes in the way we live 0 Major inventions such as the airplane car the computer and the TV radically changed modern lifestyles PREREQUISITES FOR SUCCESSFUL ADOPTION o 1 COMPATIBILITY Innovation is compatible with the consumer s lifestyle 0 2 TRIALABILITY People are more likely to adopt a product they can experiment with rst I Ex Trialsize samples of new products 0 3 COMPLEXITY The product should be low in complexity I All things being equal we choose a product that s easier to understand and use rather than a more complex one I This strategy requires less effort from us and it also lowers our perceived risk 0 Ex Manufacturers of DVD recorders put a lot of effort into simplifying usage to encourage nontechies to adopt them 0 E g onscreen programming 0 4 OBSERVABILITY Innovations that are readily apparent are more likely to spread because we can learn about them more easily I The rapid proliferation of fanny packs was result of their high visibility I It was easy for others to see the convenience this alternative offered even if they were a bit nerd o 5 RELATIVE ADVANTAGE Most importantly the product should offer relative advantage over other alternatives I The consumer must believe that it will provide a bene t other products cannot offer 0 Ex Bugchaser is a wristband that contains insect repellent o Mothers with young children like it because it s nontoxic and nonstaining ithese are clear advantages over alternatives 0 Ex In contrast the Crazy Blue Air Freshener which emits a fragrance when you urn on you car wipers zzled People didn t see the need for the product and felt there were simpler ways to freshen their cars


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