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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Burnice Carter DVM on Monday October 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY220 at Central Michigan University taught by ReneeBabcock in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see /class/218944/psy220-central-michigan-university in Psychlogy at Central Michigan University.
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Date Created: 10/05/15
Test 2 Study Guide Chapter 3 The First Two Years Body and Brain Body Changes Height and Weight Average weight at birth 75 lbs I Average length 20 inches I Most notable time for physical changes Grow one inchmonth in 1st year Weight doubles by 4 months and triples by one year Brain Development Neurons most created before birth I 70 in cortex I Axons sent impulses Dendrites receive impulses Synapses gaps between each neuron Neurotransmitters brain chemicals which carry information across synaptic gap Before birth Neurons and synapses proliferate increase rapidly in number Soon after birth elimination or pruning of unnecessary connections happens Prefrontal cortex Last part of the brain to mature the area for anticipation planning and impulse control Shaken baby syndrome Ruptures blood vessels in the brain and breaks neural connections Sleep I Newborns need about 17 hours of sleep per day I Need for rapid growth I REM sleep rapid eye movement sleep declines The content of infant dreams in unknown I Sleep patterns are influenced by brain waves and parents39 caregiving practices Moving and Perceiving Senses Hearing I Certain sounds trigger newborns39 reflexes I Newborns particularly attentive to human voice I 6 months quotscreen outquot nonuseful sounds Vision I Least mature sense at birth I Binocular vision not very good Taste prefer mother39s milk Touch comforted by touch feel pain Smell have preferences Reflexes involuntary responses to a stimulus some for survival some normal behaviors Gross motor skills I Involve large muscles and body movements I Crawling creeping walking Fine motor skills Smaller body movements I Reaching and grasping Surviving in Good Health Immunizations more benefits than side effects SIDS risk Laying on stomach to sleep I Secondhand smoke I Low birthweight I Formula feeding Adequate Nutrition I Breastfeeding I Reduces the risk of all diseases I Decreases risk of developing allergies asthma obesity and heart disease I Composition of breast milk adjusts to the baby39s changing nutritional needs Infant Cognition Sensorimotor intelligence babies think while using senses and motor skills Assimilation Piaget s term for the type of adaption in which new experiences are interpreted to fit into or assimilate with old ideas Accommodation Piaget s term for a type of adaption in which old ideas are restructured to include or accommodate new experiences Object Permanence The awareness that things continue to exist even when they39re not perceived InformationProcessing Theory I Uses computer analogy to understand human thinking processes Overturned some of Piaget39s conclusions including the concept of object permanence The visual cliff an illusion of a sudden dropoff between one horizontal surface and another I 6 montholds will cross to mothers I 10 montholds would not cross Early Memory I Very young infants can remember if the following conditions are met I Experimental conditions are similar to real life I Motivation is high I Special measures aid memory retrieval Language Learning First speech sounds I Cooing I Babbling Holophrases I Single word for entire thought I TwoWord Utterances I Telegraphic speech ChildDirected Speech I The highpitched simplified and repetitive way that adults speak to infants I Baby talk I Motherese Studies show that infants prefer this type of speech Cultural Difference in Language Use I Infants differ in their use of various parts of speech depending on the language they are learning eg more nouns and fewer verbs I Acquiring Grammar I All the devices by which words communicate meaning Worldwide people who are not yet 2 years old already use language well Hypotheses about language development I Skinner39s reinforcement theory Quantity and quality of talking to a child affects rate of language development I Parents are good instructors I Childdirected speech reinforces language Chomsky and LAD Language Acquisition Device all children are prewired to learn language I Experiment expectant our brains expect to learn basic grammar and words I Language is too complex to learn by reinforcement All children learn language in the same sequence I Social Impulse Towards Communication I There is a social reason for language to communicate I Babies respond to emotional tones not content Chapter 4 The First 2 Years Psychosocial Development Emotional Development Infant39s Emotions I Smiling and Laughing I Social Smile 6 weeks I Laughter 3 to 4 months I Anger I First around 6 months I Healthy response to frustration I Sadness I Indicated withdrawal I Stressful experience for infants I Fear I 9 months I In response to people things or situations I Stranger Wariness I Cries or looks frightened when an unfamiliar person moves too close I Separation Anxiety I Tears dismay or anger when a familiar caregiver leaves Toddler39s Emotions Anger and fear less frequent Laughing and crying more discriminating New emotions I Pride I Shame I Embarrassment Selfawareness realization that separate from others I First 4 months no sense of self I 5 months awareness as themselves as separate from their mothers 1518 months Emergence of the Meself sense of self as the quotobject of one39s knowledgequot Emotional Development I Mirror Recognition I Put a dog of rouge on babies39 noses and have them look in mirror I Under 12 months old did not realize mark was on them I 15 to 24 months showed selfawareness by touching their own noses with curiosity Stress Hypothalamus I Regulates various bodily functions and hormone development May grow more slowly in stressed infants Abuse form of chronic stress I Longterm effects on emotional development High levels of stress hormones indicative of emotional impairments Stress can be avoided by I Providing new mothers with help and emotional support I Involving new fathers in the care of the infant Theories of Infant Psychosocial Development Psychoanalytic Theory Freud The Oral and Anal Stages I Oral stage first year The mouth is the source of gratification I Anal Stage second year Pleasure comes from the anus Erikson Trust and Autonomy I Trust verses mistrust infants I Learn basic trust if basic needs are met I Autonomy verses shame and doubt toddlers I Succeed or fail in gaining a sense of selfrule Behaviorism Parents mold an infant39s quot through 39 Social learning I The acquisition of behavior by observing others Bobo Doll experiment Cognitive Theory Working Model Set of assumptions used to organize perceptions and experiences Interpretation of experiences is more important than the experiences themselves Reinterpretation of previous experiences can result in new working models Ethnotheory A theory that underlies the values and practices of a culture but is not usually apparent to the people within the culture Systems Theory Uses all 5 characteristics of the lifespan perspective I Multidirectional I Multicontextual Multicultural I Multidisciplinary I Plastic Temperament I Inborn differences in emotions activity and selfregulation I Temperament originated in the genes but affected by childrearing practices Different types of temperaments I Easy 40 I Difficult 10 I If things are disrupted they get upset I Slow to warmup 15 I Hard to classify 35 includes children with developmental disorders ex Autism The Big Five OCEAN Personality Traits I Openness welcoming new experiences I Conscientiousness organized deliberate Extroversion outgoing assertive I Agreeableness kind helpful easygoing I Neuroticism anxious moody selfcritical The Effects of Parenting I Proximal Parenting Involves being physically close to the baby I Distal Parenting I Caregiving practices that involve remaining distant from the baby providing toys food and facetoface communication with minimal touching and holding Synchrony I A coordinated rapid and smooth exchange of responses between a caregiver and an infant I Synchrony in the first few months I Helps infants to develop the skills of social interactions 39 Begins with parents imitating infants I Experiments using the stillface technique I Goodness of Fit I A similarity of temperament and values that produces a smooth interaction between an individual and his or her social context including family school and community Attachment I Lasting emotional bond that one person has with another I Begin to form in infancy and have lifelong influences I Preattachment birth to 6 weeks infant comforted by others For a premature baby this might not happen naturally I Attachment in the making 6 weeks to 8 months infants prefer familiar people I Attachment 8 months to 2 years Measuring Attachment I Strange situation I Bring the parent and the baby into a room The room has some toys in it The parent will sit in a chair and watch the baby then will get up and leave The mother comes back in after a time During each step they record how the child acts I Key behaviors to observe I Exploration of the toys I If they are using mom as a secure base if they are continuing to look at the parent or come back to touch them I Reaction to the caregiver39s departure Reaction to the caregiver39s return is the baby comforted by the return Attachment types Secure attachment caregiver is a secure base baby is upset by departure comforted on return I Insecureavoidant attachment avoids connection with the caregiver unconcerned with departure or return Insecureresistantambivalent attachment anxious and uncertain very upset at separation and both resists and seeks contact on return I Disorganized attachment inconsistent reactions to the caregiver39s departure and return Social Referencing I Seeking information about how to react by observing someone else39s expressions and reactions Fathers as social partners I Fathers spend less time with infants than mothers I Reasons I Fathers39 idea of male behavior I Mothers limit fathers39 interactions with their children I Happier husbands tend to be more involved fathers The Effects of Infant Daycare I Depends on many factors I Psychosocial characteristics influenced more by the mother39s warmth than by the number of hours in daycare I Quality of care is crucial no matter who provides care Family day care child care that includes several children of various ages and usually occurs in the home ofa woman who is paid to provide it I Center day acre Child care that occurs in a place especially designed for the purpose where several paid adults care for many children Usually the children are grouped by age the day care center is licensed and providers are trained and certified in child development Chapter 5 Early Childhood Ages 26 Body and Mind Body Changes I Body growth slows after the first 2 years I Shape becomes more streamlined I 3 inches in height per year s 4 12 pounds in weight per year Nutrition Children need far fewer calories per pound of body weight than infants do I Obesity is a more frequent problem than malnutrition I Children in lowincome families are especially vulnerable to obesity quotjustright phenomenonquot normal in children under age 6 Motor Skill Development in Early Childhood I Gross motor skills Walking running smoother I Catching throwing swinging riding I Fine motor skills Selfhelp dressing eating I Drawing Progression of Drawing skills I Scribbles during 2nd year I First representational forms I Label alreadymade drawings around age 3 Draw boundaries and people 34 years I More realistic drawings preschool to school age Brain Development I Underlies rapidly expanding cognitive abilities I By age 2 75 of brain weight achieved I By age 5 90 of brain weight achieved I Pruning dendrites has occurred I Speed of thought I Myelination axons become insulated with a coating of myelin which speeds transmission of nerve impulses I Corpus Callosum I Nerve fibers that connect the two halves of the brain Lateralization referring to the specialization in certain functions by each side of the brain with one side dominant for each activity The left side of the brain controls the right side of the body and vice versa Planning and analyzing I Prefrontal cortex or frontal lobe is the final part of the brain to reach maturity Thinking During Early Childhood Piaget Preoperational Thought I Preoperational means before logical operations I Language frees the child from the limits of sensorimotor experience permitting symbolic thinking Characteristics of preoperational thought 39 Centration tendency to focus on one aspect of a situation I Egocentrism or ego centration view the world exclusively from the child39s perspective Focus on appearance ignores all attributes except appearance Animism the belief that natural objects and phenomena are alive Static reasoning assumes the world is unchanging Irreversibility fails to recognize that reversing a process can restore whatever existed before the transformation Conservation the principle that the amount of substance is unaffected by changes in its appearance I Applied to liquids numbers matter and length I Understanding develops after age 7 and then slowly and unevenly Vygo1sky Social Learning Children39s experiences are embedded in social context I Apprentice in thinking child whose intellectual growth is stimulated and directed by other people Guided participation social experience and guided exploration with a mentor Zone of proximal development skills too difficult for child to perform alone but that can be performed with guidance and assistance of adults or more skilled children Scaffolding sensitive structuring of child39s participation in learning encounters Private Speech when people talk to themselves and new ideas are developed and reinforced Social mediation use of speech to bridge gap between the child39s current understanding and what is almost understood Theory of mind a person39s theory of what other people might be thinking I Must first realize that other people are not necessarily thinking the same thing as you I Seldom achieved before age 4 Language Early childhood is a sensitive period for language Best time to master vocabulary grammar and pronunciation Age 2 know about 500 words Age 6 knows more than 10000 words learning 10 words per day Fast mapping speedy not precise way a child assimilated new words by mentally quotchartingquot them into interconnected categories Grammar includes the structures techniques and rules used to communicate meaning Overregularization apply a rule when they should not Early Childhood Education Child Centered Programs I Montessori Schools structured individualized projects originally for poor children I ReggioEmilia children encouraged to master skills not normally seen until age encourages creativity TeacherDirected Programs 39 Stressing academic subjects taught by a teacher I Make a clear distinction between work and play Intervention Programs 39 Head start I Program for ages 35 from lowincome or minority homes I Longterm benefits uncertain Injuries Accidents are the most common cause of childhood death Primary prevention overall background conditions are changed to prevent problem from occurring Secondary Prevention actions that avert harm in a highrisk situation Tertiary prevention actions taken after an adverse event has occurred to reduce the harm or prevent disability Child Maltreatment Child maltreatment intentional harm to or avoidable endangerment of anyone under 18 years of age Child abuse Deliberate action that is harmful to a child s physical emotional or sexual well being Child neglect Failure to meet a child s basic physical educational or emotional needs Substantiated Maltreatment Harm or endangerment that has been reported investigated and verified Warning Signs I Children often do not know they are being maltreated I Signs include delayed development such as slow growth immature communication lack of curiosity or unusual social interactions Three levels of prevention I Primary prevention focuses on macrosystem and exosystem Secondary prevention involves spotting warning signs and keeping a risky situation from getting worse I Tertiary prevention reduced harm when maltreatment has already occurred Permanency planning An effort by childwelfare authorities to find a longterm living situation that will provide stability and support for a maltreated child A goal is to avoid repeated changes of caregiver or school which can be particularly harmful to the child Foster care A legal publicly supported system in which a maltreated child is removed from the parents custody and entrusted to another adult or family which is reimbursed for expenses incurred in meeting the child s needs Kinship care A form of foster care in which a relative of a maltreated child usually a grandparent becomes the approved caregiver Chapter 6 Early Childhood Psychosocial Development Initiative Verses Guilt Initiative Verses Guilt Erikson s third psychosocial crisis in which children undertake new skills and activities and feel guilty when they do not succeed at them SelfEsteem A person s evaluation of his or her own worth either in specifics or in general SelfConcept A person s understanding of who he or she is incorporating selfesteem physical appearance personality and various personal traits such as gender and size Motivation Intrinsic Motivation A drive or reason to pursue a goal that comes from inside a person such as the need to feel smart of competent Extrinsic Motivation A drive or reason to pursue a goal that arises from the need to have one s achievements awarded from the outside perhaps by receiving material possession or another person s esteem Imaginary friends are common between ages 2 and 6 Seeking Motivational Balance Psychopathology An illness or disorder of the mind At about age 4 or 5 children become less likely to throw a temper tantrum as the prefrontal cortex develops Externalizing Problems Difficulty with emotional regulation that involves expressing powerful feelings through uncontrolled physical or verbal outbursts as by lashing out at other people or breaking things I Children who do this are sometimes considered undercontrolled Internalizing problems Difficulty with emotional regulation that involves turning one s emotional distress inward as by feeling excessively guilty ashamed or worthless In an experiment done when children were told a story about two friends fighting then asked to show what happened next using toys there were significant differences I Boys tended to show the toys engaging in physical violence I Girls had the toys talk it out or change the subject Caregivers Influence on Emotional Regulation Children with nurturing caregivers tends to become more competent and less impulsive Experiments with rats show that highly stressed rats develop abnormal brain structures Psychopathology is not the inevitable result of either inborn temperament or unresponsive caregiving Play Young children play best with peers people of about the same age and social status as themselves Types of Play I Solitary play A child plays alone unaware of any other children playing nearby I Onlooker play A child watches other children play I Parallel play Children play with similar toys in similar ways but not with each other I Associative play Children interact observing each other and sharing material but their play is not yet mutual and reciprocal I Cooperative play Children play together creating and elaborating a joint activity or taking turns I Rough and tumble play Play that mimics aggression through wrestling chasing or hitting but in which there is no intent to harm I Sociodramatic play Pretend play in which children act out various roles and themes in stories that they create Challenges for Parents I Barumrind39s Three Patterns of Parenting I Authoritarian Parenting An approach to child rearing that is characterized by high behavioral standards strict punishment of misconduct and little communication I Children tend to be conscientious obedient and quiet but not very happy Children tend to feel guilty or depressed I Permissive Parenting An approach to child rearing that is characterized by high nurturance and communication but little discipline guidance or control I Children tend to be unhappy with a lack of selfcontrol They tend to be immature especially when it comes to relationships Generally live at home and remain dependent into early adulthood I Authoritative Parenting An approach to child rearing in which the parents set limits and enforce rules but are flexible and listen to their children I Children tend to be successful articulate and happy Teachers and peers tend to like these children NeglectfulUninvolved Parenting An approach to child rearing in which the parents are indifferent toward their children and unaware of what is going on in their children s lives I Sometimes mistaken for the permissive style but actually quite different Baumrind s three classification system is often considered too simple Children Parent and the Media Television I Children typically watch about 3 hours of television per day Moral Development Empathy The ability to understand the emotions and concerns of another person especially when they differ from one s own Antipathy Feelings of dislike or even hatred for another person Presocial Behavior Actions that are helpful and kind but that are of no obvious benefit to the person doing them Antisocial Behavior Actions that are deliberately hurtful or destructive to another person Aggression Instrumental Aggression Hurtful behavior that is intended to get something that another person has and to keep it Reactive aggression An impulse retaliation for another person s intentional or accidental action verbal or physical Relational aggression Nonphysical acts such as insults or social rejection aimed at harming the social connection between the victim and other people Bullying aggression Unprovoked repeated physical or verbal attack especially on victims who are unlikely to defend themselves One of the first moral values that children learn is not to hurt others When they are uncertain children follow parent s examples more than their words If their parents disagree they tend to listen to the parent who indulges them more Children between the ages of 2 and 6 are slapped spanked or beaten more than children of other ages Psychological control A disciplinary technique that involves threatening to withdraw love and support and that relies on the child s feelings of guilt and gratitude to the parents TimeOut A disciplinary technique in which a child is separated from other people and activities for a specified amount of time Timein when a parent removes the child from the play to talk about the misbehavior Becoming Boys and Girls Sex differences Biological differences between males and females in organs hormones and body shape Gender differences Differences in the roles and behaviors that are prescribed by a culture for males and females Psychoanalytic Theory I Phallic stage Freud s third stage of development when the penis becomes the focus of concern and pleasure I Oedipus Complex The unconscious desire of young boys to replace their fathers and win their mother s exclusive love I Superego In psychoanalytic theory the judgmental part of the personality that internalizes the moral standards of the parents I Electra Complex The unconscious desire of girls to replace their mothers and win their father s exclusive love I Identi cation An attempt to defend one s selfconcept by taking on the behaviors and attitudes of someone else Behaviorism I Believe that virtually all roles are learned resulting from nurture not nature I Children themselves notice the way that men and women behave and then internalize the standards they learn I Parents teachers and others reward behaviors that fit into gender stereotypes I Cognitive Theory I Gender schema A child s cognitive concept or general belief about sex differences which is based on his or her observations and experiences I Systems Theory I Attempts to understand the interactions between social systems and biological forces I Androgyny A balance within one person of traditionally masculine and feminine psychological characteristics I Hormones are biological but stress is social Know the 10 Signs Early Detection Matters Alzheimer39s Disease vs Typical Aging I Myth Having a quotlittle touch of dementiaquot is a typical part ofagingquot I Truth Having a harder time remembering some things is very different from having a form of dementia What is Alzheimer39s Disease I A progressive disease of the brain that destroys brain cells Dementia is a general term used to describe a decline in cognition functioning I Alzheimer39s disease is the most common form of dementia I It is eventually fatal Risk Factors for Alzheimer39s Disease I The primary risk factor is age I The incidence is higher in women due to women living longer I Myth f Alzheimer39s disease runs in your family genetic testing will tell if you will get it or not I Truth Having a parent or sibling with Alzheimer39s does increase the risk but genetics is not the only risk factor Genetics The gene APOEe4 is linked to greater risk of lateonset Alzheimer39s disease I It will only increase risk it does not predict the disease I Three other genes are linked to younger onset of Alzheimer39s BrainBody Connection I Brain health comes from a healthy body and an active social life I Risk for AD or vascular dementia is increased by a damaged heart or blood vessels Diabetes in midlife can lead to AD decades later I There is a strong link between serious head injury and risk for dementia The 10 Warning Signs I Memory changes that disrupt normal life I Forgetting something recently learned I Asking the same information over and over Relying on memory aids or family members for things you used to handle alone I Challenges in planning or solving problems I Problems developing or following a plan Problems working with numbers I Problems following a familiar recipe I Difficulty keeping track of bills Challenges concentrating I Taking longer than before to do common tasks I Difficulty completing daily tasks I Trouble driving to oncefamiliar places Problems managing a budget at work I Difficulty remembering rules of a favorite game I Confusion with time or place I Losing track of dates seasons and passage of time Forgetting where one is or how one got there I Trouble understanding visual images and spatial relationships I Difficulty reading I Trouble judging difference Problems determining color or contrast I New problems with words in speaking or in writing I Problems following or joining in a conversation Difficulty tracking conversations I Trouble with vocabulary I Misplacing things and losing the ability to retrace steps Putting things in unusual places I Accusing others of stealing I Decreased or poorjudgment I Changes in decision making and judgment Withdrawl from work or social activities I Losing track of favorite sports team I Forgetting how to engage in a favorite hobby Avoiding social situations I Changes in mood and personality What to do if you see signs I Talk with people about what you are seeing and thinking I A visit to the doctor is indicated I Getting the right treatment as soon as possible is crutial
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