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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mr. Amina Schuster on Monday October 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HDF100 at Central Michigan University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see /class/218949/hdf100-central-michigan-university in Human Dev And Family Sciences at Central Michigan University.
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Date Created: 10/05/15
Genetics Conception and Birth Genetics The basic unit for the transmission of heredity instructions Regulates the development of traits Some traits regulated by single pair Blood type A carrier of genes one of the 46 molecules of DNA in 23 pairs that each cell of the body contains and that together contain all human genes The molecular basis of heredity constructed of a double helix whose parallel stands consist of both pairs held together by hydrogen bonds Conception cell 23 39 ovum 23 chromosomes Single cell formed Genetic makeup similar sets of chromosomes 23rd XX or XY About 5050 5248 malefemale Ways to increase chances of malefemale child Sex linked Abnormalities more at risk Carried on X chromosome Example Hemophilia Progression 1 Conception 2 Duplication 3 Division Differentiation 8 cell stage begins Twins identical maternal 1st divide divided and separated Exact same DNA fraternal 2 separate ova fertilized by 2 separate sperms Chromosomal Abnormalities abortions Down s most well known extra 21st chromosome Sex linked chromosome Extra Y supermale Fuller beard taller trouble with speech Extra X infertility Males Klienfelter Single X Females Turner Syndrome Genetic Abnormalities Discussed in text Phenylketonura PKU SickleCell Anemia TaySachs Cystic Fibrosis Sex linked genetic abnormalities Hemophilia Muscular Dystrophy An organism s entire genetic inheritance or genetic potential The person s actual appearance 8 behavior the result of both genetic and environmental influences Prenatal Development Length of Pregnancy days or 40 weeks or months or FOREVER Stages of Pregnancy Trimesters divided OR Germinal first 14 days Embryonic 3rd thru 8 h week Fetal 9 h week thru birth Germinal First 14 days Starts at Ends at Monthly Ovary releases Ova amp it begins down the fallopian tube doesn t propel itself Conception takes place in fallopian tube sperm quotswimmingquot upstream to meet ova can t feel it no test will tell Cell division 8 cell differentiation Blostocyst fluid filled ball of cells cells separating soon to be organs Low survival rate to implant Rare implant in fallopian tube At 2 weeks 2 distinct masses Outer cells will be the Inner cells will be Not but LOTS of Placenta An organ that connects the developing embryofetus to the uterine wall to allow uptake and gas exchange via the mother39s blood supply Embryofetus 39 by cord Mother connected by blood vessels Doesn t reduce Nutrients pass from mother to baby NOT a barrier protecting baby What mom digests so does baby Caffeine cold medicine nicotine environmental pollutants Amniotic Sac Surrounds embryofetus Filled with amniotic fluid to protect baby Embryonic 3rd 8 h week Sta rts a t May feel pregnant feel and look green Home pregnancy test missed period All basic forms of all develop except sex organs Rapid Changes 22 days after conception Thin line down middle neural tube week 18quot Head eyes ears mouth and nose week quot Heart is visible Buds that will be arms and legs appear week Almost 1quot Eyes nose digestive systems amp toe formation Fingers and toes separate 52 amp 54 days week 1quot 130 ofan ounce recognizable as a human fetus Developmental sequence Development takes place F 39 39 39 Ifrom to and quot 39 quot 39 to Examples Upper arms then forearms palms and webbed fingers Legs feet and webbed toes Fetal Period 9 h week birth 3rd month at end 4 h 6 h months organs develop by 4 h month All systems amp Age of viability about Possible to survive outside of womb not probable Brain development incomplete Substances or conditions that can impair prenatal development and lead to birth defects such as Viruses Drugs prescriptions others Malnutrition obesity Extreme stress What makes it a risk Timing of exposure Time of greatest susceptibility Amount harmless in small doses but harmful once exposure reaches a certain level risk increasing when it occurs at the same time as another teratogen Other teratogens Hormones High doses of vitamins Heroin amp Methadone Marijuana Cocaine Cigarette smoke Caffeine Most common Alcohol Fetal Alcohol Syndrome deformities Critical periods 1 8 h week anytime Couple this with smoking interaction affect Also play attention to Environmental influences on Prenatal development Drugs taken by parents Genetic Counseling ampTesting Study on reading The Cat in the Hat p 39 Birth Methods of preparation Birthing Classes Information Breathing techniques Anesthetics General Birth Process 1 Fetus turns upside down 2 Fetal brain signals I m ready 3 Uterine muscles begin to contract and relax 1 BraxtonHicks contractions false labor 4 Cervix 1 Efface l 2 Dilate 5 Birth 6 Afterbirth Is baby OK Scale Checked at 1 amp 5 minutes pictured in text Problems Include Low weight Respiratory Low Birth weight less than 55 pounds Verylow less than 3 pounds Extremelylow less than 2 pounds Preterm before 37 weeks 3 or more weeks early Help for quotpreemiesquot Incubators Infant Massage care skin to skin NOTES quotLOVE 101 Definitions of Love in contrast to quotbeing in lust quotinfatuation love you have for a family member Main features oflove include the following quot 39 i feeling promotes action if this involves a basic level of being able to accept each other and share with each other This involves respect trust and safe with regard to sharing thoughts and feelings with one another being able to express affection physically being able to share affection sexually u n platonic love or mutual support 1 concern for your partner s personalemotional growth STERNBERG S TRIANGULAR THEORY OF LOVE Sternberg proposes that Consummate Love the ultimate love is comprised of the following Passion DescisionCommitment and Intimacy 1 Passion forms most quickly and goes away most quickly The road to dating and romance Sternberg proposes that while passion is often the least enduring in terms of strengthit accounts for strong feelings or drives for another person that lead to feelings ofphysical attraction romance and sexual consummation Often during this stage oflove hormones and chemicals oxytocin are released in the body that make you feel quothigh on love These feelings often are so overpowering that people sometimes do not fully utilize their ability and think and can run the risk of making bad decisions 2 DecisionCommitment idea that you are going to make that relationship your only relationship lfpeoplt feel the mmmitmmit is there it correlates to the most happiness in rclationshlps DecisionCommitment phase involves the relationship moving beyond strictly the passionate phase and deciding to make the relationship more of a priority and that there is mutual agreement that you will be working to maintain the relationship together It is important to know how you both define the relationship in terms of commitment and to know what you motivesreasons are for moving into this stage of the relationship Problems are more likely to occur when people simply move ahead in their relationships without questioning certain aspects of the relationship or not being conscious about their motivation to do so This aspect oflove has been found to be the factor that is most predictive of happiness in relationships 3 IntimacyFriendship takes longest to develop because it is all about trust This facet oflove develops more slowly over time Involves being able to safely share fully in each other with regard to thoughts feelings physical closeness without fear ofbeing minimalized undervalued or retribution Also involves being able to promote growth in the other person and to balance your needs and wants with the other person s Provides emotional safety and growth to each partner THE IMPORTANCE OF SELF WORTH IN RELATIONSHIPS know for test she will say a characteristic and need to know which one it is Ifa person does not feel lovable or worthy he or she tends not to trust a partner s love so they may do one of several unhealthy things including Hiding their quotrealquot selves behind a mask In doing so they are never able to fully be themselves they may try to be somebody else and this takes its toll emotionally by first interfering with intimacy and second by reinforcing that it is not really you the person loves but the quotartificial youquot you have created Testing the love These people employ passiveaggressive acts to quotsee if they really love mequot It may include underfunctioning and seeing if the person will rescue them trying to get to partner to quotprovequot that they love you by being unreasonable unfair obnoxious and askin them to forgive or overlook bad behavior This relates to the concept ofd in the teXt Ac uiesce and acce t all the tension or acce t the blame for eve thin These people figure that anything that goes wrong must be their fault and therefore their responsibility to fiX it They often times overlook bad behavior in their partner This relates to the concept of in the teXt Find someone quotcrippledquot or deficient in some way Choosing a person that desperately needs you or choose somebody you think is actually quotworsequot in someway than you These relationships are based on mutual unhealthi dependency both usuall have low selfworth This relates to concept of in the teXt SelfIo ve vs Narcissism High feelings of selfworth enhance a and love others u erson s caacit to understand a reciate High self esteem enhances a person s ability to make friends express themselves tolerate criticism and be more responsive to praise Emotional interdependence is more likely with people who have high self esteem in that it enhances a person s ability to make interdependent commitments in which partners have a strong sense of themselves and are also able to invest in their identity as a couple and have mutual give and take rather than depending on the other to define their identity These are described by John Crosby as Mframe relationships and are considered more healthy than Aframe relationships where couple have high couple identity and dependency but little sense of their individual identities and depend on their partners to define who they are They are also considered more healthy than Hframe relationships where there is high individual identity but little or tenuous couple identity Aframe Hframe and M frame relationships may have some correlation with attachment styles Can become problematic down the road Aframe Symbiotic people are too involved with each other They cannot live apart They get really anxious when the other person is not there They fall in love really quickly and if anything goes wrong they freak out Insecure anxious attachment H frame Both people back away if things get to serious Commitmenta phobics They do not trust love and relationships in the beginning They do a lot of testing in the relationship They are insecure avoidant attachment This can happen if past relationships were too smothering in the past M frame Can maintain individuality but can come together Can balance the both ls aware of couple need Related to secure attachment style Not overly jealous Partners can do their own things without the other freaking out Securely attached individuals have a trust of individuals and they are able to invest in somebody else without fear ofit threatening their individual identity or without fears that it is not safe to trust somebody These people are more likely to be involved in MFrame Individuals with insecure anxious style of attachment are more likely to be involved in Aframe relationshipsthey are looking for this person to be their quoteverythingquot and if either one of them moves towards independence it feels threatening This often leads to partners sabotaging their personal growth and that of their partner Individuals with an insecure avoidant style of attachment are most likely to be involved with Hframe relationships because t hey do not trust the relationship to provide them with what they needor they expect that the relationship will quotsuck the life out of them so they do not want to invest