Introduction to Logic
Introduction to Logic PHL 140
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erika Robel on Monday October 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHL 140 at Central Michigan University taught by John Meixner in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see /class/218956/phl-140-central-michigan-university in PHIL-Philosophy at Central Michigan University.
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Date Created: 10/05/15
PHL 140 Quiz 1 Study Guide 2quot 539quot F 0quot Fquot 1 9 0 H H H N H W H 1 H U39l 16 17 18 19 20 EXplananans do what The explaining If then antecedent consequent If A then B Asufficient condition and B necessary condition Deductive Argument impossible for conclusion to be true if the premises are true Inductive Argument improbable for conclusion to be false if premises are true Logic the study of correct reasoningtheory ofinference a symbolicmechanical system for representing and testing patterns of an argument Valid deductive argument claims to follow from premises and actually does Invalid deductive argument claims to follow from premise but doesn t Strong Inductive argument improbable that the conclusion be false ifpremises are true Weak Inductive argument claims to follow from premises to be improbable for conclusion to be false but doesn t actually follow in order to be improbable Cogent argument inductive argument that s strong and has all true premises Uncogent argument inductive argument that s weak or has a false premise Sound argument a deductive argument that s valid and all true premises Unsound argument a deductive argument that is invalid or has a false premise What decides whether an argument is deductive or inductive Strength of support relationship Deductive arguments have perfect support For deductive arguments it s impossible for the premises to be true and the conclusion to be false For inductive arguments it s possible for premises to be true and conclusion to be false Valid conclusion follows deductively from premise Semantics are a question of content Validity is a question of form 21 Falsity is a question of content 22 Soundness is a question ofboth form and content 23 An argument is invalid ifits form allows a substitution instance with true premises and a false conclusion because if it follows the conclusion would have to be true NOT false 24 Enthymeme an argument with an assumed premise that is not mentioned Two kind innocent part that is missing is obvious loaded part that is assumed is misleading quite often an opinion 25 A cogent argument CANNOT be deductively valid 26 An argument can never be false 27 In a deductive argument the truth of the premises GUARENTEES the truth of the conclusion