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Foundations of Computer Science

by: Orlo Terry

Foundations of Computer Science CS 112

Marketplace > Central Washington University > ComputerScienence > CS 112 > Foundations of Computer Science
Orlo Terry
GPA 3.87

James Schwing

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About this Document

James Schwing
Class Notes
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This 42 page Class Notes was uploaded by Orlo Terry on Monday October 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CS 112 at Central Washington University taught by James Schwing in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see /class/218981/cs-112-central-washington-university in ComputerScienence at Central Washington University.


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Date Created: 10/05/15
Review Review Review Review Review Review Review A Review 1 1 O Review Review Using AND OR or XOR Review If OR or XOR is choosen Review Then must have a 0 Review So this must be an AND Review 73910 0 On the other hand Review 73910 0 If AND is choosen Review Then could have a 1 Review So this could be OR orXOR Half Adder Half Adder Note that x B is 1 only for inputs of A O and B 1 While AX B is 1 only for inputs of A 1 and B O Half Adder Thus TAXBAX is 1 for both A0 and 81 and A1 and 80 Half Adder Full Adder G A fulladder circuit needs three inputs A B and Carryin and two outputs Sum and Carryout FM Sum II Ad 1 er Cmut t FUII Full Adder 1010101 0110011 0001111 Full Adder 010101 110011 001111 Full Adder 0101 0011 1111 lawleddef Two fulladder circuits can be combined to add together two 2bit numbers A and B to produce a 3bit Sum A 0 Full Bl l Adder CIn 0 51 1 3 0th A2 l Full 52 D 82 1 Adder C in 2 0th or 53 1L Subtraction Red ux 6 Remember that subtracting is adding the nega ve 9 Thus if we have two bit numbers A2 A1 gt A2 A1 BZ B1 EE Subtraction uses an Adder circuit where the second bits are complemented and there is a carryin right at the beginning Al Bl Full C in or Subtract i 52 Hill Adder Cout 0r53 Representing Images Color 9 Color is often expressed in a computer as an RGB RedGreenBlue value Why 9 An RGB value is actually three numbers that represent the relative contribution of each of the Red Green and Blue in the color of an object 6 Each of the three numbers is in the range 0255 0 minimum 255 maximum 552008 Introduction to Computer Science 30 Representing Images Color 552008 FLCB 139nquotEiluva 1 i 4quot Actual CalmP B br m w n Introduction to Computer Science Representing Images Color The number of bits used to represent a color is called color depth 0 HiColor uses 16 bits 5 bits to represent each number in the RGB value plus 1 bit used to represent transparency o TrueColor uses 24 bits 8 bits for each number in the RGB value 552008 Introduction to Computer Science 32 Digitized Images o In the simplest technique an image can be thought of as a very large matrix of points pixels Bits are used to encode the color depth RGB value of each pixel The number of pixels used to represent an image is called the resolution more pixels high resolution less pixels low resolution 552008 Introduction to Computer Science Digitized Images The storage of image information on a pixelbypixel basis is called a raster graphics format Some popular raster graphics format are BMP bitmap GIF JPEG 552008 Introduction to Computer Science 34 IZIIZI ID I DI 2 In DI 0 DD 00 U U 39 H WI 1 5 Introduction to Computer Science I U1 Bitmap Image Example In the previous image let39s color the bottom row be yellow 552008 Introduction to Computer Science o In the previous image lets color the bottom row be yellow 9 Now check the bitmap encoding to seethe changes n 304 L1 CIIJIJ44IJ IUD4539 Unnuu 39 UEIL39J4I 552008 I cityI 1 cu Introduction to Computer Science II I I C I I 3 CI 1 I 3 3 3 IJEIUUUEIIE IU IIIEaIIDElll l l lllil l l I4 I4 I4 I4 I4 II II I4 I4 I4 II II I4 E I4 I4 I4 4 I4 I4 I4 I4 I4 I4 I4 I4 I4 II II II II 39 II II 39 1 an n a n c EI EII EIEHEIHEIEEIEEIIIIIIIIIII 4 I 04 n4 n4 04 no an 04 U4 no an 04 U4 U4 U4 U4 U4 U4 04 04 U4 U4 U4 U4 U4 Representing Audio Information 6 We perceive sound when a series of air compressions vibrate a membrane in our ear which sends signals to our brain 6 A stereo sends an electrical signal to a speaker to produce sound This signal is an analog representation of the sound wave The voltage in the signal varies in direct proportion to the sound wave 552008 Introduction to Computer Science Representing Audio Information 6 To digitize the signal we periodically measure the voltage of the signal and record the appropriate numeric value The process is called sampling 9 In general a sampling rate of around 40000 times per second is enough to create a reasonable sound reproduction 552008 Introduction to Computer Science 39 his peak value is lost U6 Sampling Penod Introduction Figure 38 Sampling an audio signal to Computer Science 40 552008 Representing Audio Information o A compact disk CD stores audio information digitally On the surface of the CD are microscopic pits that represent binary digits A low intensity laser is pointed as the disc The laser light reflects strongly if the surface is smooth and reflects poorly if the surface is pitted 552008 Introduction to Computer Science 41 surface recepior Introduction to Computer 552008 42 Science


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