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Chapter 7 Notes

by: Haleigh Siple

Chapter 7 Notes BIO 120

Haleigh Siple
GPA 3.3
General Biology

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Chapter 7 notes on Membranes to use with Quiz #5
General Biology
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Haleigh Siple on Monday October 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 120 at Grand Valley State University taught by Rybczynski in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biological Sciences at Grand Valley State University.

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Date Created: 10/05/15
Bio 120 Chapter Notes Oct 4 Bio Chapter 7 Notes Section 71 Selective Permeability the membrane allows some things to pass through more easily than others Membranes are mainly made up of proteins lipids and most importantly phospholipids Amphipathic a molecule with both a hydrophilic and a hydrophobic end Membranes are mainly held together by hydrophobic interactions which are weaker than covalent bonds Membranes retain uidity until a certain temperature Unsaturated lipids remain uid at lower temperatures due to their shape they do not stack easily Integral Proteins penetrates the hydrophobic interior of the lipid bilayer Peripheral Proteins proteins that are loosely bound to the surface of the membrane Functions of Membrane Proteins 1 Transport a protein may provide a hydrophobic channel across or proteins shuttle a substance across by changing their shape 2 Enzymatic Activity Proteins in a membrane may be an enzyme with an active site exposed 3 Signal Transduction a protein in a membrane with a bonding site comes into contact with a chemical that fits the site The protein is able to relay the message to within the cell 4 CellCell recognition some proteins are 1D tags that are recognized by membrane proteins of other cells 5 Intercellular joining membrane proteins of different cell may become interlocked 6 Attachment to the Cytoskeleton helps maintain the cells shape and stabilizes the membrane Glycolipids membrane carbohydrates bonded to lipids Glycoproteins membrane carbohydrates bonded to proteins Synthesis of Membrane Components 1 Proteins and lipids are made in the endoplasmic reticulum and are bonded with a carbohydrate forming glycoproteins 2 The Golgi apparatus modifies the lipids which acquire carbohydrates forming glycolipids 3 The glycoproteins glycolipids and secretory proteins are send to the plasma membrane 4 The secretory proteins positions the carbohydrates of glycoproteins and glycolipids on the outside side of the plasma membrane Bio 120 Chapter Notes Oct 4 Section 72 Aquaporins transport proteins that facilitate the passage of water through the membrane Section 73 Diffusion the movement of solute from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration Concentration Gradient the region along which the density of a substance increases or decreases Passive Transport the diffusion across a biological membrane Osmosis the movement of water from areas of high solute concentration to areas of low solute concentration Tonicity the ability of a surrounding solution to cause a cell to either gain or lose water Isotonic no net movement of water The concentration of solute is equal both inside and outside the membrane Hypertonic the concentration on the outside of the cell is greater than the inside causing the cell to lose water Hypotonic the concentration on the inside of the cell is greater causing the cell to gain water Osmoregulation the control of solute concentrations and water balance in cells lacking a rigid cell wall Turgor Pressure pressure of water against the cell wall internally Turgid the cell is swelled with water and is firm the plant s stem is upright Flaccid the cell is lacking water in an isotonic environment The cell is limp the plant s stem is droopy Plasmolysis occurs when the plasma membrane pulls away from the cell wall due to lack of water Facilitated Diffusion diffusion with the aid of transport proteins in the membrane Transport proteins move some substances and not others The membrane is selectively permeable in this way Ion channels channel proteins that transport ions Gated Channels transport channels that open or close as a result of stimuli e g electricity in a nerve cell Bio 120 Chapter Notes Oct 4 Section 74 Active Transport the process of pumping a solute across a membrane against its gradient this requires energy Active transport enables a cell to maintain internal conditions different from those of the environment ATP supplies the energy for active transport in cells SodiumPotassium Pump transport system that exchanges Na for K across the membranes of animal cells Membrane Potential the voltage across a membrane Acts as a battery and supplies energy for the movement of substances across the membrane Two forces drive the transport of ions across a membrane Chemical and Electrical Electrochemical Gradient the combo of chemical and electrical force on an ion Electrogenic Pump a transport protein that generates voltage Proton Pump the main electromagnetic pump which transports H out of the cell Transfers a positive charge from the inside of the cell to the environment Cotransport A transport protein can couple the downhill diffusion of a substance to the uphill transport of a second substance against its gradient Section 75 Exocytosis the secretion of certain molecules by the fusion of vesicles with the plasma membrane Many cells use this process to export products Endocytosis when a cell takes in molecules by forming new vesicles from the plasma membrane Ligands a molecule that binds specifically to a receptor site of another molecule Phagocytosis a cell engulfs a particle by extending a membrane around it and packaging it in a sac called a food vacuole Pinocytosis a cell absorbs droplets of uid into tiny vesicles layered by coat protein Receptor mediated endocytosis process which enables a cell to acquire large quantities of a substance Molecules of a certain substance bind to proteins in the membrane which then cluster into coated pits forming a vesicle Bio 120 Chapter Notes Oct 4


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