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September 28 and 30 and October 2

by: Ryan Neubauer

September 28 and 30 and October 2 Geography 202

Marketplace > Illinois State University > Geography > Geography 202 > September 28 and 30 and October 2
Ryan Neubauer
Evolution of the Earth
James Day

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Week 7 notes
Evolution of the Earth
James Day
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ryan Neubauer on Monday October 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Geography 202 at Illinois State University taught by James Day in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Evolution of the Earth in Geography at Illinois State University.


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Date Created: 10/05/15
Animals A Corals 1 Solitary or Colonial polyps a Formed by asexual budding from a single polyp that secrete a calcareous i Calcite and Aragonite 2 Solitary Rugose Cora corallites a Vertical Radial Walls 3 Late Devonian of Iowa a Skeleton shows numerous corallites each with its calyx radial septa and coenosteum 4 Colonial scleractinian corals construct organic reefs in the modern ocean 5 Sea pens a Colonial cnidarians that do not secrete exoskeletons B Animals with organ systems body cavities coelomes and Segmented body plans 1 Annelida a Middle Cambrian age annelid worm i Burgess Shale of British Columbia ii Cambrian Age 2 Lobopoda a Transitional between annelids and true arthropods b Ayshaeia i Marine oncyphoran 3 Arthropoda a Sea Scorpions b Centipedes 4 Trilobita a Marine rocks of the Era became extinct at the end of the Permian Period b quotTriloquot i Divided into three segments C Subphylum Hexapoda insects 1 Mostly Terrestrial 2 Mostly uniramous appendages D Crustaceans 1 Include a Pi bugs b Crabs c Shrimps d Lobsters e Barnacles E Ostracoda 1 Clams F Mollusca 1 Bivalves a b Clams Oysters 2 Gastropods a b Snails Slugs 3 Cephalopods a b c d G Bivalvia Nautiloids Ammonoids Squids Octopuses 1 Clams a b Have a shell made up of two valves right and left valves hinged dorsally and have a foot used for locomotion or burrowing lnfaunal bivalve burrowing 2 Byssus 3 Scallops a b c Clams that may attach themselves to the sea oor Scallops are able to swim When you orde scallops you are eating the central muscle that closes the two valves of the shell ConUnue A Dating and correlation of the Geologic Record 1 Lithostratigraphic units a Differences in composition of rock bodies in a local succession b Position of distinctive rock bodies c Mappable i Correlated over a large area Stratigraphy Geochronologic Units a Time Units We use fossils to date rocks Rocks making up the Geological Record of Earth History are dated and correlated from place to place 6 Age Dating and Correlation a Determination of the ageequivalency of rocks in different regions B Absolute vs Relative dating 1 Absolute Dating a Determining actual ages of earth materials b Carbon Dating 2 Relative Dating a Relative ages of earth materials sedimentary rocks C Stratigraphy 1 Subdivision and correlation of traceable named gropus of related bedded rocks on the basis of a Physical characteristics or rock properties Lithostratigraphy b Magnetic properties Magnetostratigraphy c Distinctive fossil content Biostratigraphyfossil correlation D Stratigraphic Classi cation 1 Geochronologic Units a Geological Time Units 2 Litostrigraphic Units a Bodies of rock recognized and correlated on the basis of their physical properties 3 Biostratigraphic Units a Bodies of rock distinguished from each other and correlated on the basis of their distinctive fossil content 4 Chronostratigraphic Units a Bodies of rock that were deposited or formed during a particular Geologic Time Unit Recognized JUN U39Ilgt 5 on the basis of their fossil content or absolute ages Magnetostratigraphic Units a Bodies of rock of a given age that can be distinguished on the basis of their magnetic properties E Geologic Time Units 1 N 2 Lithostratigraphic Units 1 2 P P FPquot Eons a4 Eras a10 Pedods Epochs Ages Subages a Zones Cretaceous System Period Names of Systems Periods 1 Tribes within the boundaries of present day Wales at the time of the Roman invasion Exact Boundaries are conjectural Bodies of rock recognized and correlated on the basis of their physical properties Classi cation and correlation of bodies of strata stratigraphic units based entirely on their lithologic or physical properites Lithology a Composition and texture of sedimentary rock comprising a stratum or goup of strata i Limeston ii Dolomite iii Shale iv Sandstone v Siltstone vi Etc Formation are the basic units of rock classi cation and are part of hierarchical classi cation Units Group Formation Member Bed 5 goom Chapter 3 A Class Cephalopoda 1 Cephalopods are highly intelligent mobile swimming carnivores 2 They are also the largest invertebrate animals reaching lengths of over 120 feet 40 m 3 Shelled cephalopods where widespread and extremely diverse during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras 4 The modern nautilus Genus Nautilus is one of two genera that survive in the modern oceans 5 Modern sh a Kettle sh b Octopus B Phylum Brachiopoda 1 Brachiopods have a shell consisting of two phosphatic or calcareous valves 2 They all use a specialized feeding organ called a Lophophore to lter food from seawater 3 Live on the sea oor attached by a pedicle and lter feed 4 Most diverse and abundant group 5 They were extremely diverse and widely spread in the Paleozoic Era C Phylum Bryozoa 1 Colonial animals 2 Individual animals called zooids use a lophopore to lter food from sea water 3 Secrete a calcareous colonial skeleton a Called Zooarium D Phylum Echinodermata 1 All echinoderms have body parts arranged in multiples of ve secret calcareous internal skeletons and use tube feet for food gathering and locomotion 2 Most echinoderms exhibit a vefold radial symmetry which imparted by the underlying structure and symmetry of the water vascular system 3 Modern Crinoids a Seal lilies are attached by a stem and use their arms to lter food from seawater ll Chordates A Amphioxus 1 Class cephalochordate 2 All chordates have a dorsal nerve cord supported by or enclosed by the notochord 3 Vertebrates the notochord is divided into ossi ed blocks called vertebrae Conodonta Cambrian Triassic Coelocanths 1 Lobe nned sh related to the rhipidistians that gave rise to the rst vertebrates to invade land a The Amphibians 2 Coelocanths were thought to be extinct by the end of the Cretaceous but were discovered living off the coast of South Africa in the late 1930s Class Amphibia 1 Evolved from now extinct group of air breathing lobe nned sh in the Late Devonian 2 First group of tretrapods capable of leaving water although most were aquatic Class Reptilia 1 Evolved from amphibians in the Carboniferous 2 Became independent of water for reproduction by development of the amniote egg 3 Class Avesbirds a Evolved from theropod dinosaurs in the Jurassic Class Mammalia 1 Mammals evolved from a Mammallike reptiles tyherapsids in the early Triassic


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