BIO 123 Chapter 6 Notes
BIO 123 Chapter 6 Notes BIOL 123
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amber Logan on Monday October 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 123 at University of New Mexico taught by Dr. Dorothy C. Scholl in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 95 views. For similar materials see Biology for Health Related Sciences and Non-Majors in Biology at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 10/05/15
Chapter 6 Notes Cellular Membranes and the Metabolic Processes Part I Membranes and Cellular Transport 61 Cellular Membranes 0 Cellular membrane plasma membrane gatekeeper of the cell 0 Made up of a phospholipid bilayer Makes up all cellular membranes plasma membrane organelle membranes etc Amphipathic has hydrophobic tails and hydrophilic heads components 0 Separates the highly ordered inside of the cell from the outside world helps cell maintain homeostasis constant internal environment Selective permeability carefully regulates what goes in and comes out of the cell 0 Yes small hydrophobic molecules 0 No large hydrophobichydrophilic molecules ions 0 Factors that can affect permeability 0 Temperature colder temperatures cause membrane to become less permeable less fluid while higher temperatures cause membrane to become more permeable more fluid 0 Fluid mosaic model of plasma membrane that shows proteins embedded in the surface of the plasma membrane Extracellular matrix surrounds cells made up of water and glycoproteins protein w a sugar attached to it 0 Provides structural support glycolipids sugar with a fat attached are sticky and help hold cells and tissues together Some proteins move along the membrane while others are anchored in place Receptor proteins cellcell communication receive and transmit signals into the cell Transport proteins help shuttle substance and molecules across the plasma membrane and intoout of the cell Adhesion proteins anchor cell to extracellular matrix Outside of cell Carbohydrate chains 3 3 o n r I 9 I u g aquot 2 I membrane 39 1quot j I quotquot r39 I39 39 v v 39v Inside Of ce Protein cytoplasm channel LIpId bilayer Image 1 62 Diffusion and Osmosis 0 Solution solute the substance being dissolved solvent substance doing the dissolving Diffusion spontaneous movement of a substance from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration down its concentration gradient 0 Example if you dump some salt into water the salt will spread out through the water until it reaches a concentration equilibrium even distribution o Is a passive process 9 does not require energy input Relies on kinetic energy keeps molecules in constant motion 0 Osmosis diffusion of water where solvent molecules move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration 0 Water potential potential energy of water its ability to move from 1 area to another 0 Solutions can be 1 lsotonic concentration of the inside of the cell is equal to the concentration of the outside environment 9 no net water movement 2 Hypotonic outside environment has lower concentration of solute than inside of cell 9 water moves into the cell 9 cell swellslyses 3 Hypertonic outside environment has higher concentration of solute than inside of cell 9 water moves out of the cell 9 cell shrivelscrenates ISOTONIC SOLUTION HYPOTONIC SOLUTION HYPERTONIC SOLUTION H20 H20 H20 ANIMAL CELL 1 Normal 2 Lysing PLANT CELL 4 Flaccid 5 Turgid Copynght it 2003 Pearson Education lm publishing as Ben min Cummings Image 2 63 Cellular Transport gt Check out this video httpsWANyoutubecomwatchvdPKvHrD1eS4amplistPLE6EDEQCF5D37DA47ampindex1 0 Some molecules cannot readily pass through cellular membranes they have to be diffused through the membrane by proteins Facilitated Diffusion Facilitated diffusion process of spontaneous passive transport of moleculesions across a biological membrane via channel proteins 0 Channel transport proteins hydrophobic exterior with hydrophilic interior that allows ions and hydrophilic molecules to pass through Shape of channel determines what can travel through it Many have gates that openclose depending on needs of cell 3 types 1 Symport can carry 2 substances in 1 direction 2 Antiport can carry 2 substances in 2 directions 3 Uniport can only transport 1 substance in 1 direction 0 J 00 0 a o O a 0 uniport symport antiport Image 3 Active Transport 0 Active transport occurs when a cell must move a solute against a concentration gradient from low to high concentration which requires an input of energy ATP and a channel protein 0 How it happens 1 Cell breaks down ATP through hydrolysis 2 Free phosphate group from ATP attaches to protein pump 9 protein pump changes shape 3 Phosphate group is removed from the pump 9 protein pump returns to original shape 9 solute is pumped across membrane 0 Causes an increase in potential energy it takes the system out of equilibrium Iongated channels help maintain homeostasis of electrolytes in our bodies 0 SodiumPotassium pump transports sodium ions Na and potassium ions K across the plasma membrane Want a lower concentration of Na and higher concentration of K in the cell 9 pump has to actively move Na out 0 Passive vs Active Transport see Image 4 0 Passive transport diffusion does not require an input of energy Example coasting down a hill on a bike Simple diffusion molecules slip between phospholipid bilayer Channel proteins open a channel intoout of the cell Passive carrier proteins molecule binds to site on protein causing the protein to change shape and bring the molecule into the cell 0 Active transport requires a protein pump input of energy ie ATP Moves molecules against their concentration gradient Example pedaling up a hill on a bike Active carrier proteins molecule ATP binds to site on protein causing it to change shape and bring the molecule into the cell 0 Sodiumpotassium pump moves sodium and potassium ions intoout of the cell 0 o Homeostasis of sodium and potassium is crucial for muscle contraction Vesicular transport when a vesicle from golgi body moves toward the plasma membrane w the help of ATP TRANSMEMBRANE TRANSPORT Passive transport Active transport 39 I Simple Facilitated diffusion diffusion I 7 Channel Passive carrier Active carrier proteins proteins proteins Discover Biology 52 Figure 76 part 2 lt9 2012 W W Norton 8 Company Inc Image 4 Part II Energy and Metabolism 64 Energy Work Heat Temperature and Chemical Reactions Energy Work Heat and Temperature Energy ability to do work causing something to move 0 Laws of Thermodynamics govern energy transformations 0 2 basic forms 1 Kinetic energy energy of motion Includes electricity visible light thermal energy etc Heat thermal energy the faster a molecule moves the more thermal energy and kinetic energy it has 0 Temperature measure of heataverage thermal energy 0 As thermal energy is reduced entropy decreases in a system 0 The rate of diffusion is higher in places of higher kinetic energy lnside cells rate of chemical reactions increases with higher temps o This is why we have a fever when we re sick our bodies are trying to increase the rates of chemical reactions trying to fight the infection 2 Potential energy stored energy Chemical energy stored in bonds of molecules and concentration gradients MATERAL BEING TESTED ON TEST 2 ENDS HERE Chemical Reactions 0 All molecules have chemical energy stored in their bonds 0 Activation energy EA the energy added to break bonds in order to start a chemical reac on The stronger the bonds the more energy is required to break them The more chemical energy in the bonds the less stable they are 9 are easier to break Amount of energy released potential energy in products potential energy in reactants Exergonic reaction chemical reaction that loses energy in the process 0 Potential energy is converted to kinetic energy there is less potential energy in the products than there was in the reactants 0 Cellular respiration exergonic reaction that takes place in our cells allowing them to extract energy from organic molecules 39 C6H1206 6 02 9 6 H20 6 C02 ATP glucose oxygen gas 9 water carbon dioxide energy 0 Increase entropy in the universe Endergonic reactions chemical reaction that gains energy in the process 0 Products store more energy than the reactants o Photosynthesis endergonic reaction that takes place in plants that allows them to convert sunlight to organic molecules that they can use for energy 39 6 H20 6 C02 sunlight 9 C6H1206 6 02 water carbon dioxide energy 9 glucose oxygen gas 0 Cells are open systems use endergonic reactions to increase order and lower energy within membranes 0 Increase entropy in the universe Exergonic Reaction Endergonic Reaction A l f Reagents Products I quotI Energy Absorbed AG Energy Released A G ligaments Course of Reaction V lquot 39 Prod ucts D Course of Reaction Free Energy 6 Free Energy r Image 5 65 Redox Reactions Enzymes and Metabolism Redox reaction combination of reduction and oxidation reactions 0 Reduction when a molecule gains electrons o Oxidation when a molecule loses electrons Oxygen strong oxidizing agent has a strong liking of electrons o Enzymes molecules that lower activation energy energy required for a chemical reaction to take place of a chemical reaction Are required to facilitate redox reactions Substrateenzyme complex where a molecule substrate can be broken down into smaller narts see ImameE 0 Active site location where substrate binds to enzyme o Is very specific in terms of which substrates it will bind to Lactose intolerance occurs when your body cannot produce the enzyme lactase which breaks down lactose molecules Regulation of enzymes see Image 6 0 Competitive involves an inhibitor which binds to the active site so that the substrate cannot Noncompetitive involves an inhibitor that binds to a different location on the protein causing the enzyme s active site to change shape Competitive Substrat Substrate Inhibitor Products interferes wuth active site of enzyme so Active site 3 subst39a e i Substrati t 7 quot 39 cannot bind I E 8 OJ 7 Noncompetitive inhibitor Enzyme Enzygi lgftrate Enzyme 0 changes shape of p 3 enzyme so it cannot bind to substrate a Competitive inhibition b Noncompetitive inhibition Image 6 Image 7 66 ATP The Energy Currency of the Cell 0 ATP Adenosine Triphosphate molecule that has covalent bonds between phosphate groups that are easily broken for energy 0 ATP loses its third phosphate group by hydrolysis 9 ADP energy see Image 7 Kinase enzyme that adds phosphate groups to molecules takes phosphate broken off of ATP and transfers it to another molecule 0 Used to do chemical work in the cells Image 8 Picture Credits Image 1 httpapbiomaedahs weebly com2bceIIhomeostasisceIImembrane processeshtml Image 2 httpcmapspubli02ihmc usrid1 1651 549 70624 1 92 79876 7 60 77Cell20 Membranecmap Image 3 httpwwwperkepicomactivetransport Image 4 Dr Scholl s Ch 6 PowerPoint Image 5 httpsadapaprojectorgbbktikiindexphp pageLeaf3AWhatisacatalyst3F Image 6 httpnosweatlifecomblogsnews18004952enzymeswtfarethey Image 7 httpsbiochemanicswordpresscomtagenzymesinhibitors Image 8 httpsteadystrengthcomglossaryatp
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