Anthropology chapter 6 continued
Anthropology chapter 6 continued ANT 120
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel W on Monday October 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 120 at Eastern Kentucky University taught by Jennifer Wies in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Intro to Cultural Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Eastern Kentucky University.
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Date Created: 10/05/15
Globalization and culture Understanding Global interconnections Postcolonial Studies World systems theory has been especially relevant to scholars to post colonialism Resistance on the Periphery Anthropologists study resistance by groups on the periphery ranging from open rebellion to subtle forms of protest and opposition Some forms of resistance are so subtle that they might not be recognized by outsiders For example Females in a Malaysian factory protested working conditions via spirit possession making them violent loud and disruptive Eocal zat on The creation and assertion of highly particular often place based identities and communities Localization is re ected in patterns of consumption such as clothing to convey messages Beyond winners and losers Today people increasingly express their local identities through interactions with transnational communities consumption and businesses People simultaneously engage in global processes and local communities but rarely on equal footing Depends on placement within the sphere of the world system In 1949 US president sought to help the underdeveloped world Contemporary international development is promoted by the UN government aid agencies lending agencies and nongovernmental organizations Just as in the days of colonialism technology advanced capitalist countries are the model for ideal social and economic development Anthropology and development Is the goal to improve material conditions while maintaining diversity Or eliminate diversity in an attempt to make everyone the same Development anthropology the application of anthropological knowledge and research methods to the practical aspects of shaping and implementing development projects Anthropology of development the eld of study within anthropology concerned with understanding the cultural conditions for proper development or the negative impacts of development projects Development Anthropology Guide development projects in ways that are bene cial for local people in addition to plans of outside agencies worked to reduce deforestation in Haiti in the 1970s and 19805 Bridged the gap between the goals of the planners and those of the farmers suggesting ef cient mutually bene cial solutions Anthropology of Development Some anthropologists support the work of development anthropology by exploring what kinds of social conditions might help projects succeed Others challenge that development inevitably causes harm by giving more control to outsides worsening social inequality and perpetuating the ethnocentric and paternalistic attitudes of the colonial era Rural Development in Lesotho Anthropologist studies the ThabaTseka Rural Development Project in Lesotho 1975 1984 Ferguson39s research indicated that people in rural Lesotho are poor not because they live in a rural area but because their labor is exploited in South Africa The presence of outsiders also undermined the power traditionally held by village chiefs Cultural and global change Some anthropologists say that there are really a variety of perspectives among developers ad that development is more accountable to impacted communities than it once was Challenges that remain include the following o In indigenous and rural communities that outside help isn39t necessarily virtuous and undermines self determination 0 Change enforced from outside local communities can be particularly ineffective since people want to preserve traditions that give their lives meaning 0 Culture convergence theories 0 Clash of civilizations39 o Hybridization Cultural Convergence Theories 1983 suggested that local traditions are gradually fading as Western ideas replace those in nonwestern communities The Mcdonalization model features ef ciency calculability predictability tight control over production and mechanized labor over human labor quotCoca Colonizationquot Westernization or Americanization the culturally and economically powerful western nations especially the US imposing their products and beliefs on the rest of the world Called cultural imperialism Convergence and World Culture World culture norms and values that extend across national boundaries However shared foods entertainments and clothing do not necessarily mean that humans are culturally homogenous in other respects Clash of Civilizations describes a world divided into civilizations in perpetual cultural tension with each other today taking the form of western civilization vs Islamic vs Chinese civilization with divergent worldviews that generate geopolitical con icts Most anthropologists dismiss this model for its ethnocentrism and assumption that cultural diversity necessarily creates clashes Hybridization While the convergence and clash of civilization theories predict a world moving toward cultural purities hybridizations emphasizes a world based on cultural mixing border crossing and persistent cultural diversity Some critics of hybridization theory argue that cultural mixing is a super cial phenomenon with reality moving toward convergence Others suggest that the theory ignores political power economic power and inequality Anthropologists most often conduct eldwork at a single location How can they study phenomenon in a community without losing sight of the international factors and forces shaping that community Multisided research is fast becoming a common anthropological research strategy for investigation transnational phenomena like environmental issues the media international religious movements and the spread of science and technology
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