CH 6 and concept maps reading
CH 6 and concept maps reading Psyc3200
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caoimhe Notetaker on Monday October 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc3200 at Tulane University taught by Sarah Grey in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Educational psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 10/05/15
Educational Psychology 10052015 Chapter 6 Learning cognition and memory 0 Vocab 0 Cognitive psychology general theoretical perspective that focuses on the mental processes underlying learning and behavior cognitive process particular way of thinking about and mentally responding to a certain event or piece of information Construction mental process in which a learner takes many separate pieces of information and uses them to build an overall understanding or interpretation Constructivism theoretical perspective proposing that learners construct rather than absorb knowledge from their expedences Individual constructivism theoretical perspective that focuses on how people as individuals construct meaning from their expedences Neuropsychology study of how various brain structures and functions are related to human learning and behavior Information processing theory theoretical perspective that focuses on the speci c ways in which learners mentally think about or process new information and events Memory Ability to mentally save something that has been previously learned also the mental location where such information is saved Storage process of putting new information into memory Encoding changing the format of new information as it is being stored in memory Retrieval process of nding information previously stored in memory Sensory register component of memory that holds incoming information in an unanalyzed form for a very brief period of time two or three seconds at most depending on the modality Working memory component of memory that holds and actively thinks about and processes a limited amount of information for a short time Central executive component of the human memory system that oversees the ow of information throughout the system Maintenance rehearsal rapid repetition of a small amount of information to keep it fresh in working memory Cognitive load cognitive burden that a particular learning activity places on working memory at any one time includes both the amount of information students must simultaneously think about and the speci c cognitive processes students must engage in to understand what they re studying 0 Longterm memory component of memory that holds knowledge and skills for a relatively long time Astrocyte starshaped brain cell hypothesized to be involved in learning and memory has chemically mediated connections with many other astrocytes and with neurons Activation degree to which something in memory is being actively attended to and mentally processed Declarative knowledge knowledge concerning that nature of how things are were or will be Procedural knowledge knowledge concerning how to do something Conditional knowledge knowledge concerning appropriate ways to respond physically or mentally under various conditions Explicit knowledge knowledge that a person is consciously aware of and can verbally describe Implicit knowledge knowledge that a person cannot consciously recall or explain but that nevertheless affects the persons thinking or behavior Concept mental grouping of objects or events that have something common Schema tightly organized set of facts about a speci c topic Script schema that involves a predictable sequence of events related to a common activity Theory integrated set of concepts and principles developed to explain a particular phenomenon Rote learning learning information in a relatively uninterpreted form without making sense of it or attaching much meaning to it Rehearsal cognitive process in which information is repeated over and over within a short timeframe typically a few minutes or less as a possible way of learning and remembering it Meaningful learning cognitive process in which learners relate new information to things they already know Elaboration cognitive process in which learners embellish on new information based on what they already know Organization cognitive process in which learners make connections among various pieces of information they need to learn Concept map diagram of concepts and their interrelationships used to enhance the learning and memory of a topic Visual imagery process of forming a mental picture of an object or idea Knowledge base one existing knowledge about speci c topics and the world in general Prior knowledge activation process of reminding learners of what they already know relative to a new topic Meaningful learning set attitude that one can makes sense of the information one is studying Conceptual understanding meaningfully learned and well integrated knowledge about a topic including many logical connections among speci c concepts and ideas Mnemonic memory aid or trick designed to help students learn and remember one or more speci c piece of information Verbal mediator word or phrase that forms a logical connection or cognitive bridge between two pieces of information Keyword method mnemonic technique in which an association is made between two idea by forming a visual image of one or more concrete objects that either sound similar to or symbolically represent those ideas Superimposed meaningful structure familiar shape word sentence poem or story imposed on information to facilitate recaH Misconception belief that is inconsistent with commonly accepted and wellvalidated explanations of phenomena or events Conceptual change signi cant revision of an existing theory or belief system enabling new and discrepant information to be better understood and explained Con rmation bas tendency to seek information that con rms rather than discredit current beliefs Situated learning and cognition knowledge behaviors and thinking skills acquired and used primarily within certain contexts with limited or no retrieval and use in other contexts Hot cognition learning or cognitive processing that is emotionally charged Automaticity ability to respond quickly and ef ciently while mentally processing or physically performing a task Retrieval cue stimulus that provides guidance about where to look for a piece of information in longterm memory Wait time length of time a teacher pauses either after asking a question or hearing a students comment before saying something further Consolidation neurological process in which newly acquired knowledge is rmed up in the brain often takes several hours Decay gradual weakening of information stored in long term memory especially if the info is used infrequently O O Interference phenomena whereby something stored in long term memory inhabits ones ability to remember something else correctly Reconstruction error construction of an event but incorrect quotmemory quot by combining info retrieved from ones long term memory with ones general knowledge and beliefs about the world Learning long term change in mental representation or associations as a result of experience 0 Nature of learning 0 O Perspective of nature of learning are not mutually exclusive tend to complement each other Cognitive psychology Cognitive processes in uence what is learned a Speci c things people do as they try to remember have an effect on what is learned Peoples cognitive processes can sometimes be inferred from behaviors n Based on responses to event we can make inferences about cognitive processes People are selective about what they mentally process and learn Meaning understanding are not derived directly from environment they are constructed by learner With age cognitive processes becomes increasingly sophisticated 0 Attention 0 000000 Limited capacity Not just a behavior also a mental process Sensory register working memory short term long term New learning new neurons Learning occurs in many places cortex is key Concepts take strain off of working memory s limited capacity Self constructed theories help children make sense of and remember personal experiences subject matter and other new info But sometimes includes erroneous beliefs about the world Rote learning vs meaningful learning Rehearsal vs comprehension understand elaboration organization visual imagery n Elaboration increases learning build on what you already know u Organization concept maps helps children learn and teachers access learning a Visual imagery especially powerful when used with other forms of encoding Procedures physical behaviors and mental activity To teach model overt behaviors and internal thought process More likely to engage in meaningful learning when they have a relevant knowledge base Directs attention to most important info Enhances ability to elaborate Provides a framework for organization Teachers must not emphasize rote memorization Encourage own words explanations and conceptual understanding Less material thoroughly rather than a basic understanding of more material Use mnemonics in absence of relevant prior knowledge Promote conceptual change to challenge misconceptions Obstacles n Con rmation bias n Existing beliefs are simpler I Some beliefs are integrated into cohesive theories I Might not notice inconsistencies n Personalemotional investment in beliefs Retrieval More likely to remember distinct Unique info More likely to remember info with emotional charge Regular practice automaticity Retrieval cues Increased wait time increases retrieval o Forgetting Decay Reconstruction errors Retrieval difficulties couldn t nd it in long term Interference 0 Diversity in cognitive processes Difference in working memory capacity Cultural background and worldviews n Handle different learning environment Wait time cultural Disabilities giftedness n ADHD effects attention Concept Maps Reading 0 Promote meaningful learning and provide teacher with valuable insight into mental models of students 0 0 00000 0 Helpful metacognitive tool Interaction of new and existing knowledge is easier if existing knowledge is clear to teacher and students Wandersee quotto map is to knowquot Provides point of focus for re ection Constructivist approach Mapping fosters meaningful learning and communication Organizes thoughts helpful for complex material quotinvalid linksquot on map are still important May lead to new valid link or may just show a topic a student misunderstood most progress when different ability groups work together use mapping to group kids into complementary groups help monitor progress determine zone of proximal development El
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