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Chapter 8

by: aleavick

Chapter 8 KINS 2010

GPA 3.8
Kinesiology 2010
Dr Schmidt

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Chapter 8 Class Notes! Goodluck everyone!!
Kinesiology 2010
Dr Schmidt
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by aleavick on Monday October 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to KINS 2010 at University of Georgia taught by Dr Schmidt in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Kinesiology 2010 in Kinesiology at University of Georgia.

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Date Created: 10/05/15
Chapter 8 Class Notes Motor Behavior Learning Objectives Present the goals of motor behavior including motor learning motor control and motor development Present and apply some important principles in the led of motor behavior Started with psychology using cognition to explain PA has now expanded into its own subdiscipline MOTOR Behavior Terminology comes from analogy of neurological system being our motor driving system Can do re ned movements and we are able to do this through our motor systems What is motor behavior The study of how motor skills are learned controlled and developed across the lifespan Applications often focus on what how and how much to practice when learning a new skill Motor behavior guides us in providing better situations for learning and practice Valuable to performers and those who teach motor skills Teachers of motor skills PT OT PE teachers Coaches Motor Movements studied beyond sport Babies learning to use a fork and spoon Dentists learning to control the drill while looking in a mirror Surgeons controlling a scalpel microsurgeons using a laser Children learning to ride a bicycle or to roller skate Teenagers learning to drive Dancers preforming choreographed movements Piots learning to control an airplane Young children learning to control a pencil when writing or learning to type on a computer Goals of Motor Behavior Umbrella terms encompasses 3 main parts To understand how motor skills are learned Motor learning To understand how motor skills are controlled Motor control To understand how the learning and control of motor skills change across the life span Motor development Goals of Motor learning To explain how Processes such as feedback and practice improve the learning and performance of motor skills Response selection and response execution become more efficient and effective Learning includes the retention and transfer of knowledge orskMs Retention Ex Learning to swim last summer and not forgetting this and being able to do it the next summer Transfer taking what you learned in one context and taking it to another context Ex Hitting a tennis ball at practice Then have to apply this to a game while also taking into account running execution etc Biology Learning Cognition Biology Primarily referring to our neuromuscular system Not all equal in our neuromuscular systems Changes over our lifetime Genetic differences Neurological control path Fexibiity Basic Mechanisms of motor control Individual differences Cognition Perceptual ability Where you are located in space Objects Attention to task Attend to details Competitive players a lot of stimuli that is not essential distracting Being able to attend to what is necessary and zone in on this Decisionmaking Performing different activities decide when to do certain things Ex Baseball know the motor pattern of how to swing Need to know when to swing and how to swing based on modi cation in a split second Those two things combined lead to learning Learning leads to permanent changes Developing motor programs Change in behavior due to experience Applications Sport Human Factors Medicine Rehathann Ex Learning to run when you have been amputated above the knees Motor learning The goal is to understand the role of practice feedback and individual differences Before practice Goal setting Instructions Demonstrations Must consider the learner and the skill and the skill ex Closed vs open Cosed Same thing every time aim at a target doesn t change bowling darts Open Hitting a baseball different every time by speed location angle Ex How to teach him how to throw a baseball Goal throw to a target nstruction how to do it Demonstration showing an example Scheduling practice Frequency Needs to be correct Important for what type of practice you choose Context of practice Speci city of practice In order to in uence and be able to transfer skills in practice to the game Need to make practice conditions mimic game conditions Feedback knowledge of results and performance Two main types 1 Knowledge or results Hit a baseball that was the goal no matter how you did it you succeeded if you did it General more helpful for advanced performers generally knows how to correct their performance themselves 2 Knowledge of performance More specific speci c feedback about the movement Swing faster hands up back level etc Prompting person to change movement somehow so they can have greater success Better for less experienced taught how to x their form to be more efficient and successful Unhelpful feedback quot Hit the ballquot or try harder Doesn t give them anything to go for or improve or change 50 of trial time for correction fading Shouldn t give feedback all the time Have to give people time to implement and make the changes from the original direction Fading gradual withdrawal the amount of feedback you give so they can give their own intrinsic feedback and re ect on what they did and how to improve Positive and Negative feedback Positive doing this right Negative helpful criticism Can be both extrinsic and intrinsic Extrinsic Learner is getting feedback from outside sources Intrinsic Learner is giving this feedback to themselves Ex Imagine that you are coaching a soccer team made up of 6 year ods who haven t played on a team before Identify the three practice variables you would use to create an effective teaching and learning environment for your 6 year ods 1 Have your players practice basic skills like dribbling and receiving and passing in a progressive manner going from a more closed discrete situation to a more complex open situation 2 Create a series of modi ed games so that children have lots of opportunity to practice and have fun 3 Make the practice activities match the performance setting Stages of Motor Learning Cognitive Stage Understanding what needs to be done to execute the skill quot Think about it a lot of thought going inquot The thought what needs to be done is always going on Not putting everything together Trial and errors errors tend to be large and unpredictable don t really know what you are dong Associative stage Can perform basic components of the task consistent errors discrete adjustments in performance occur Assess your own errors and make own corrections Errors are consistent Established most effective way to do the task Autonomous stage Task can be completed automatically without having to pay direct cognitive attention Need to get to this stage so you can concentrate on other things that s happening in the game Ex Cant be thinking about dribbling thinking about quot Muscle memoryquot Motor patterns Takes a lot of commitment to reach Ex Video example Kinesiology in the news Moderate exercise may make cancer treatments more effective Goals of Motor Control To analyze how the mechanisms in response selection and response execution control the body s movement Coordination of muscles and joints during movement Control of a sequence of movements To explain how environmental and individual factors affect the mechanisms of response selection and response execution Motor Control Motor Programs are proposed memory mechanisms that allow movements to be controlled Ex Triple axel in ice skating not conscious of every single movement that is taking place all the basic movements she knows shes just triggering when those things happen As motor programs are developed they become more automatic allowing the performer to concentrate on the use of the movement in performance situations Body wants to rely on decisionmaking centers on the brain as little as possible want it to be as automated as possible Ex Singing Drums Guitar wouldn t be able to do this if have to think about each little thing Motor Control Five Areas of Research don t need to understand all these areas of research Degrees of freedom Coordination of movement How many different body parts can move at once Ex Reaching for something how many degress of freedom pronationsupination wrist Finger joints Shoulderjoint elbow exion extension Motor equivalency Fire Motor units groups of muscles can re in different combinations and different forces trying to look at how the body decides how to deiced what to re and when to move Serial order of movements coarticulation Moving multiple joints at once Keep something stable coconract muscles all around that Perceptual integration during movement Skill acquisition How skills are acquired Ex Parkinson s Trouble triggering the motor patter have the path just have trouble starting it Goals of motor development To explain how Motor learning and control improve during childhood and adolescence Motor learning and control deteriorate with aging Developmental motor learning and control The goal is to understand skill acquisition across the life span Topics studied include Developmental changes in the mechanics of movement Life span development Expedence Changing neuromuscular systems across the lifespan Growth and gender in the development of overhand throwing TOPHAT REVIEW QUESTIONS 1Which of the following is considered the rst stage of motor learning B Associative C Comprehension D Autonomous 2 AfterJohn kicked the football from the 22 yard line he heard the referee yell quotits goodquot What type of knowledge was expressed by the referee A Knowledge of performance intrinsic feedback B Knowledge of performance extrinsic feedback C Knowledge of results intrinsic feedback Extrinsic from referee not from johns internally dialogue Feedback on performance or results results 3Proposed memory mechanisms that allow movement to be controlled are known as A Motor Behaviors umbrella term B Motor Patterns C Motor Schemas package deal tells us how to do something


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