PSY 302: Week 1 Lecture Notes
PSY 302: Week 1 Lecture Notes PSY 302
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shannon Hardman on Monday October 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 302 at University of Oregon taught by Laurent S in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Statistical Meth Psych in Psychlogy at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 10/05/15
PSY 302 WEEK 1 LECTURE NOTES LECTURE 1 What Is Statistics 0 Statistics A set of procedures using numbers that helps to organize summarize and interpret information typically used to draw conclusions A numeric value that describes a sample 0 Mathematical and graphical tools used to condense large amounts of information ways to make sense of data 0 EX Averages and variability of income average rainfall annual birth rates etc 0 Tools to determine what conclusions are justi ed by results of a study 0 Examples 0 Does attending preschool lead to school success 0 Do people think that morality is absolute or relative What is the most popular style of music for people aged 1417 versus 1821 0 Google will use you for stats 0 They track your search data and lump you into a sample and see the statistics behind certain categories of things You Probably Do Stats Every Day 0 The examples above can be reduced to statistical techniques ie chi square correlationregression and ttests two of the three kinds 0 You encounter stats in various forms the Internet in magazines in newspapers television casual conversation and in all types of science Populations Vs Samples 0 Population A full set of observations all individuals objects or events of interest 0 Populations have parameters numeric value describing a population 0 Uses mostly Greek letters ex u o 0 Sample A subset of observations from a population often used to infer what is true about the population It39s a cup of water taken from a pool 0 Samples have statistics 0 Typically uses Latin letters ex M 5 Descriptive Statistics Summarizes and organizes observations and describes data Can describe observations from samples to whole populations 0 Examples 0 Average GPA for all U0 students 0 Average GPA for all students admitted to grad school at U0 0 How people voted at the last election lnferential Statistics A set of techniques that allow one to use data from samples to generalize about characteristics of populations without having to collect data on the whole population Allows conclusions to be drawn that go beyond the data 0 Examples c From a sample ofAmercans polled about attitudes we could infer support in the population ofthe US for universal health care 0 From a sample of U0 students interviewed infer average drinking behavior on the population of the campus LECTURE 2 What Is A Variable 0 Something that varies or can take on different values 0 Variables are characteristics or conditions that can change 0 What you eat for dinner every day is a variable 0 How fast your heart is beating is a variable 0 Variables usually represent singular concepts 0 Gender is a variable described with two quotmainquot values Discrete Variables 0 Discrete categorical nominal variables have separate indivisible categories without fractional divisions they are things that are one thing and not another 0 A chair is a chair a table is a table not half a chair and half a table It is what it is Values between categories are either not possible or not meaningful 0 Continuous Theoretically divisible into an in nite number of fractional parts ex the amount of time since the universe or class began The Roles Variables Play 0 An independent variable IV deliberately manipulated by a researcher the treatment done 0 Quasiindependent variable Seem like independent variables they39re not manipulated but they39re used to de ne groups ie gender distribution is a quasiindependent variable 0 Dependent variable DV The observedoutcome variable The independent variable39s manipulation creates the results of the dependent variable Correlationa Research 0 Seeing if two things correlate basically Has a quasiIV and a DV but can also be done with no lVDV distinction Nominal Groupings of things that cannot be divided ie types of wine Ordinal Groupings of things ordered from rst to last Le a small medium or large glass Interval Groupings of incremental things ie temperature but there is no true zero 0 degrees is still a temperature Ratio Groupings of incremental things but there is a true zero an absence of something A Few Notes On Variables o In psychology variables that are actually nominal or ordinal are treated as interval 0 Organizing variables are much easier with distribution tables It takes a huge mass of information and makes it easily digestible
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