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Environmental systems/ Climate and vegetation

by: James McDaniel

Environmental systems/ Climate and vegetation 1001

Marketplace > University of Colorado > Geography > 1001 > Environmental systems Climate and vegetation
James McDaniel
GPA 3.0
Envir Sys 1-Climate/Veg

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one week of geography notes
Envir Sys 1-Climate/Veg
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by James McDaniel on Monday October 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 1001 at University of Colorado taught by Barnard,Holly in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Envir Sys 1-Climate/Veg in Geography at University of Colorado.


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Date Created: 10/05/15
Study guide Chapter 1 Geography a spatial discipline a perspective that seeks to understand the patterns on the earth and how they were formed 5 themes of Geographical science 1 Location 2 Place 3 Region 4 Movement 5 Human Earth relationships Geography helps humans understand the world around us and how to make better decisions Physical geography Physical patterns on earth and the processes that created them Physical geography focuses on two things 1 Patterns of landforms water vegetation soil 2 Processes actions and changes that affect Earth39s physical features 1 degree latitude is equal to 69 miles Great Circle Plane intersecting the globe that divides the world into equal halves Small Circle Plane intersecting the globe that divides the world into unequal halves Chapter 2 The sun radiates a lot of short wave energy 0 Short wave lengths have a higher frequency which gives them more energy 0 Earth radiates long wave length energy Wavelengths shortest to longest Gamma ray X Ray UV ray Visible light Infrared Microwave Radio Stefan Boltzmann Law The warmer the object the greater the energy emitted by the object Wien39s Law the warmer the object the shorter the wavelength emitted by the object Sun powers earth through radiant or solar energy electromagnetic energy Insolation uneven distribution of intercepted solar radiation Tropics receive 25 more concentrated insoation than poles due to the earth39s curvature Lambert39s cosine aw increasing angle increases area illuminated at the surface which causes per unit area to decrease Seasonal Changes key factors 1 Sun39s altitude angle above the horizon 2 Declination location of sub polar point 3 Daylength Reason for observing seasons 1 Revolution earth revolves around the sun voyages takes one year earth spins at 66660 mph 2 Rotation Earth rotates its axis once every 24 hours rotational velocity at the equator is 1041 mph 3 Tilt of Earth39s axis 4 Axial Parallelism 5 Sphercity Avergae distance from earth to Sun 15000000 km or 93000000 miles Perihelion 147255000 km closest atJanuary 3rd Aphelion 152083000 km Farthest atJuly 4th Ecliptic Plane of Earth39s orbit Energy will decrease the farther we move away from the sun Reasonsforseasons 1 Tilt of Earth39s Axis axis is tilted 235 degrees from the plane of the Ecliptic 2 Axial Parallelism Axis maintains alignment when it orbits around the sun Sphericity causes uneven distribution of insoation Tropics concentrated insoation Extratropics diluted Concentration insolation 0w Annual march of the seasons 1 Winter solstice December 21 or 22 subpolar point Tropic of Capricorn 1 Spring Equinox March 20 to 21 Subpolar point equator 1 Summer Solstice June 20 or 21 Subpolar point Tropic of cancer Wind essentials Air pressure Gravity Elevation 0 Motion size and number of air molecules determines temperature and density of air which determines air pressure Measurement of Pressure 0 Mercury barometer Aneroid barometer Normal sea level pressure 0 10132 mv millibar force per square meter of surface area 0 2992 in mercury Hg 0 Also expressed in kilopascals 1KPA 10 mb Wind essentials 2 0 Wind Description 0 Name and direction 0 Westerly o Easterly Measurement 0 All but only horizontal o Anemometer 0 Wind Vane Global wind direction on a non rotating earth 0 Will end up with a highly simpli ed circulation pattern a Equator will be proportionally warmer then poles 4 driving forces within the atmosphere 1 Gravity a Uniform worldwide causes atmospheric pressure 2 Pressure Gradient Forces a Air moves from high to low pressure created by differences in air pressure 2 Coriolos force Earth rotation de ects wind and ocean currents 1 FFRICTION FORCE a EARTHS SURFACE EXERTS DRAG Gravity and Air Pressure 0 Combined gases air 0 Changes horizontally vertically and through time Pressure gradient force the only force that can initiate wind movement Caused by differences in air pressure 0 Will move to high pressure areas to low pressure area Isobar connecting lines of equal pressure Line of constant barometic pressure 0 The closer isobars are the steeper the gradient this will increase wind speed Can have a steep or shallow pressure gradient Cold air sinks high pressure anticyclonic Warm air riser low pressure cyclonic Coriolis force The apparent de ection of moving object from travelling in a strait path In proportion to the speed of the earth39s rotation at different latitudes North hemisphere de ection to the right 0 Southern hemisphere de ection to the left 0 Strength determined by latitude and speed Pressure and Coriolis Will counter the pressure gradient force which causes wind to move parallel to isobars PressureCoriolisFriction Also known as surface winds It causes the wind to move at an angle Atmospheric patterns of motion 0 Primary high pressure and low pressure areas 0 Upper atmospheric circulation 0 Local winds Inter tropical conversion zone Low pressure zone Primary high pressure and low pressure areas Equitorial low pressure trough Subtropical high pressure cells Atmospheric patterns of motion 1 Hadley Cells largest and most dominant cell 2 Ferrel Cells not the most dominant caused by interaction between the polar cell and Hadley cell 3 Polar cells high latitude and is a dominant cell Equatorial low pressure trough o Inter tropical convergence zone ITCZ follows the motion of our sub solar point 0 Trade winds results in the development of the panama canal faster wind speeds January ITCZ It moves from south to north depending on the seasons 0 Will cause large variations and seasonality in the subtropics Hadley cells Include ITCZ or equatorial low pressure trough Year round low pressure Trade winds NE and SE Subtropical highs between 20 north and 35 degrees north Subtropics high pressure zone creates dominant wind patterns 0 Atlantic high 0 Bermuda high 0 Azores high 0 Paci c high Westerlies wind Sub polar low pressure cells 0 Polar Front 0 Aleutian low Icelandic low Polar high pressure cells create polar easterlies Antarctic high Ferrell cell Created by other cell patterns Doesn t follow normal convection Jet streams Sharp difference between temperature and boundaries 0 Polarjet stream 0 Sub polar jet stream Local Winds 1 Land sea breezes driven by small scale convective belts ounce it is lifted it will col and then drop Lower temperatures over the ocean At night there is a reversal in the process Land surface become the cooler surface and water becomes the warmer surface 1 Mountain valley breezes 0 During the day the warm air goes up the valley from bottom to top 0 During the night cold air will go from top to bottom called a cold air drainage pattern land cools quickly cools air above it air molecules become denser Oceanic currents Surface currents driven by surface wind patterns usually move clockwise o Thermohaline currents Increase in salinity and decrease in temperature causes water to sink


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