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Biodiversity, Conservation biology & Ecological Restoration

by: Brittany Notetaker

Biodiversity, Conservation biology & Ecological Restoration EVR 1001

Marketplace > Florida State University > Environmental Science > EVR 1001 > Biodiversity Conservation biology Ecological Restoration
Brittany Notetaker
Introduction to Environmental Science
Dr. Rob Spencer

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About this Document

Attached are the noted for the week of September 28- October 2. My notes are detailed, organized and easy to understand. If you'd like to get together for a midterm review, don't hesitate to get in...
Introduction to Environmental Science
Dr. Rob Spencer
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Notetaker on Monday October 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EVR 1001 at Florida State University taught by Dr. Rob Spencer in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Environmental Science in Environmental Science at Florida State University.


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Date Created: 10/05/15
Tuesday December 15 y Biodiversitv the variety of life in a particular habitat or ecosvstem 0 can be used to refer to the number of broad classes of organisms in an area 0 or to the number of species 0 or the genetic diversity within a population 0 High biodiversity greater genetic diversity Genetic Diversity Total number of genetic characteristics of a species subspecies or group of species Habitat Diversity the different kinds of habitats in a given unit of area Species Diversity 0 Species richness total number of species 0 Species evenness relative abundance of species 0 Species dominance the most abundant species Number of species on Earth 0 13 million species of eukaryotes 0 estimated that 87 million species actually eXist 0 86 of all species on land and 91 of all marine Population Diversity genetic diversity within a population 0 a diverse population in a population that has significant genetic and phenotypic variability Genotype the genetic makeup of a cell an organism or an individual Phenotype the outward appearance of an organism the expression of a genotype in the form of traits that can be seen and measures such as hair or eve color or disease resistance 0 A diverse population has a greater ability to withstand environmental variability Species Diversity 0 the number or evenness of species within an ecosystem to on the entire planet 0 the resilience of an ecosystem is correlated with its species diversity 0 diversity also increases productivity 0 Functional Redundancy species that fill similar niches can replace each other if one goes extinct Functional Diversity the total amount of roles that are filled within an ecosystem ecosystems can have many different niches How many niches are available How many have been lled Tuesday December 15 y 7bta Genetic Diversity genes are tools These tools can be used or many different purposes Mangroves mitigate the damage caused by hurricanes Nitrogenfixing bacteria add N to the ecosystem Some fungi produce penicillin A cure for malaria might be found in the fur of tree sloths New species arise as a result of competition for resources differences among individuals in their adaptations to environmental conditions Four processes lead to evolution mutation natural selection Migration geographic isolation Mutation Genes are inherited from one generation to the next When cells divide DNA is reproduced Each new cell gets a copy Mutation when an error occurs in the reproduction of DNA as it gets passed to new cells Possible causes radiation or a virus Natural Selection Some individuals may be better suited to the environment than others Those better able to survive and reproduce leave more offspring Five Primary Characteristics Genetic variability environmental variability different reproductive rates that vary with the environment production of more offspring that can survive to maturity in uence of the environment on survival and reproduction Tuesday December 15 y Migration and geological isolation Allopatric speciation two p0pulations become deooraphicallv isolated Adaptive radiation organisms diversify rapidly into a multitude of new forms particularly when a change in the environment makes new resources available Genetic Drift changes in frequency of a gene in a population simply by chance founder effect small numbers of individuals are isolated from a larger pooulation Characteristics present are affected by chance individuals may not be better adapted Biological evolution tells us the folo Wing about biodiversity species and populations can become geographically isolated from time to time and undergo the founder effect and genetic drift species are always evolving and adapting to environmental change Divergent Evolution pooulation is divided and each evolves separatelv Convergent evolution given suf cient time and similar climates species similar in shape and form will tend to appear Geology and Geography affect biodiversity species are not uniformly distributed over earths surface they re not uniformly distributed locally either species change with soil type and topography slope aspect Factors that tend to increase diversity a physically diverse habitat moderate amounts of disturbance a small variation in environmental conditions high diversity at one trophic level increases the diversity at another trophic level an environment highly modi ed by life middle stages of succession evolution Tuesday December 15 y Factors that tend to decrease diversity environmental stress extreme environments a severe limitation in the supply of an essential resource extreme amounts of disturbance recent introduction of exotic species species from other areas geographic isolation being on a real or ecological island Biotic Province a region inhabited by a characteristic set of taxa bounded by barriers that prevent emigration and immigration in each biotic province certain families of animals are dominant and ll ecological niches Within a biotic province species are more likely to be related evolved and adapted in the same place for a long time When a species is introduced it may be unrelated or distantly related to natives species Biomes similar environments that provide similar opportunities and similar constraints leads to evolution of organisms in similar forms and functions Biotic province vs Biome A biotic province is based on who is related to whom an evolutionary unit Species diversity tends to decrease from the tropics to the poles both on land and in water not known for certain Hypothesis greater primary productivity in the tropics stronger habitat gradients due to decreased seasonal variability Ecosystem Complexity Tropical forests have multiple canopy layers Habitat Loss Habitat Fragmentation human activities subdivide one continuous habitat into small fractions 4 Tuesday December 15 y individual population are smaller and less connected Migration pathways get blocked organisms that need large breeding or hunting areas cannot persist Overharvesting species with large bodies slow population growth rates and ocking behavior are particularly vulnerable to human exploitation Nonnative invasive species newly introduced specie may be invasive because of they own biological traits or because of the absence of predators or competitors Through commerce and travel humans have redistributed tens of thousands of species some intentional some not Many species will be unsuccessful when placed in a new habitat others will ourish Pollution air and water pollution are directly responsible for the disappearance of some species lichens are particularly susceptible to air pollution sediments clog lterfeeding organisms in aquatic habitats Altered patterns of disturbance changes in frequency and severity of re are leading to decreased bio diversity in some ecosystems Kirtlands Warblers are a bird species that only nest in jack pine trees that are between 5 and 20 years old jack pines used to undergo cyclic succession Climate change Preserves and protected areas 39 big is better than small island biogeography bigger supports more species 39 connected is better than unconnected over time populations in a small reserve can uctuate they can experience inbreeding lack of genetic diversity 39 near is better than far when local extinction occurs reestablishment requires immigrants from a nearby shelter habitat Western very connected eastern not too connected to preserves Tuesday December 15 y Buffers matter Accommodate landscape change disturbances are a natural part of many ecosystems must be maintained for ecosystem health manage people dif cult to reconcile needs of wildlife with demands of people for recreation logging water etc enforcement is a major issue indigenous people protecting people from animals


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