Chapter 6 82679 - PSYC 3060 - 001
Popular in Human Sexual Behavior
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Date Created: 10/05/15
Chapter 6 Birth Control World Population 00 7 billion in 2011 3 UN estimates that the population will be 91 billion in 2050 0 Experts predict there will eventually be a widespread starvation poverty and political instability 3 Because of huge population overgrowth China issues a mandatory birth control in 1982 0 200 million pregnancies a year 41 are unintended US Births And Use of Birth Control 0 During the baby boom years there was an average of 35 babies born to each American couple Use of birth control halted the baby boom Teenage pregnancy rate in the US is the highest of any developed country in the world In sexually active teens 537 girls and 67 boys reported that condoms used during their last sexual intercourse Contraception the prevention of conception 13 of all pregnancies occur because women thought they couldn t get pregnant 00 In 1912 Margaret Sanger gave up a nursing career and funded the birth control league 9 O O 09 90 09 O 06 O 0 Evaluating Different Birth Control Methods 00 Perfectuse pregnancy rate for a particular birth control technique the percentage of pregnancies during the st year of use by couples who use the technique properly and consistently 00 Typicaluse pregnancy rate for a particular birth control technique the percentage of pregnancies during the rst year of use by all couples who use the technique regardless of whether or not they use it properly or consistently usually higher than perfect use 393 Over a 10 year time period the chance of having an unplanned pregnancies while using contraceptives is between 67 and 90 Relatively Ineffective Methods 393 Withdrawal withdrawal of the man s penis from his partner s vagina before ejaculation in order to avoid conception o3 Douching a feminine hygiene practice of rinsing out the vagina usually with speci cally prepared solutions 0 Sperm will have already traveled up to the cervix 0 Sometimes the pressured forces the sperm into the cervical opening Abstaining From Sex oz The most effective way to avoid an unwanted pregnancy is to abstain from sex oz 95 of Americans have had sex before marriage 393 Abstinence programs have no longterm affect Lactational Amenorrhea Method 0 Breast feeding has been called quotnatures contraceptivequot 0 The sucking response of the baby on the mother s nipple inhibits the release of FSH and LH from the pituitary gand thus preventing normal menstrual cycles 3 Major factor that determined the length of the interval between pregnancies 0 During breast feeding pregnancy is only 2 for 6 months Fertility Awareness Abstaining From Sex During Ovulation 0 Methods of birth control that attempt to prevent conception by having a couple abstain from sexual intercourse during the woman s ovulation 0 Menstrual cycles are very irregularhard to judge when you are ovulating 0 Calendar Method and Standard Days 0 Keep track of a minimum of 6 cycles 0 Calendar method a fertility awareness method of birth control that attempts to determine a woman s fertility period by us of a mathematical formula subtract 18 from the shorts cycle and 11 from the longest cycle The unsafe period would be between those two Ex 24186 32 1121 611 unsafe days 0 Standard days method a fertility awareness method of birth control for women who typically have menstrual cycles of 26 to 32 days Cycle beads a string of 32 colorcoded beads help women using the standard days method to keep track of their fertile days Women move the black rubber over one bead a day 0 Dark beadslow risk 0 12 whitehigh o Billings Method Cervical Mucus or Ovulation Method a fertility awareness method of birth control in which changes in the consistency and quantity of cervical mucus are used to tell when ovulation has occurred The mucus changes from white to sticky clear a day or two before ovulation A couple is advised to abstain from sex 4 days after the mucus has changed consistency o Symptothermal method a combination of the basal body temperature and Billings fertility awareness methods a woman s BBT rises by at least 4 degrees F about the time of ovulation and stays there for at least 10 days Once BBT rises and remains high for 3 days ovulation has ended It should be taken at the same time every day preferably in the morning Spermicides Substances That Kill Sperm O 90 Spermicides chemicals that kill sperm oz To be used in conjunction with barrier methods 0 90 O 90 Do not protect women against diseases Foam jellies creams and lm Barrier Methods Preventing Sperm from Meeting Egg 0 90 O O O 90 90 90 Barrier General term for contraceptive methods that block the passage of sperm Male Condoms a thin sheath made of latex rubber lamb intestine or polyurethane that ts over the penis Condoms are effective as contraception and for prevention of sexually transmitted infections Reduce men s sensitivity slightly 13 of women are allergic Female Condom Women can use an intravaginal pouch held in place by two exible rings Diaphragm a domeshaped rubber cup with a exible rim that ts over the cervix and thus acts as a contraceptive device by serving as a barrier to the passage of sperm into the uterus women must be tted for one Cervical cap a contraceptive device that ts over the cervix by suction thus blocking the passage of sperm into the uterus FemCap made of silicone and has a concave side that ts over the cervix spermicide can be applied to both the inside and outside Contraceptive Sponge a contraceptive device made of polyurethane sponge that contains enough spermicide to be effective for 24 hours after being inserted into the vagina 0 Does not require a pelvic exam 0 Sold in one size without a prescription can be left in for 24 hours The Pill Patch Ring and Shot 02 Birth Control 0 17 of reproductive women in the US use it 0 Nearly 100 brands 0 Combination pills a oral contraceptive that contains both synthetic estrogen and synthetic progesterone Works by thinking cervical mucus which prevents sperm from traveling and preventing ovulation o Progestinonly pill an oral contraceptive that contains only progestin s Works primarily by keeping cervical mucus thick impairing the passage of sperm and ovulation is often inhibited as well The pill is for women breast feed or who cannot tolerate the side effects of estrogen pi 0 Negative Side Effects and Health Risks No evidence of a decreased sex drive Those who start the pill have side effects that mimic pregnancy weight gain nausea cramping breast tenderness If these symptoms do not go away within the rst few months it is good to switch to extended cycle pills Birth control does not increase the risk of birth defect Newest pills slightly increase the risk of blood clot 0 Health Bene ts Do not protect against STI Decrease cancer of the endometrium and cancer of the ovaries benign breast tumors and reduced rate of ovarian cysts and PID Reduce menstrual related problems cramps excess bleeding 00 The Patch and the Ring 0 OrthoEvra a contraceptive patch that applies to the skin and is effective for 1 week Slowly releases estrogen and progestin 33week patches followed by a pathless week The patch releases higher level of estrogen which increases the change of a stroke 0 NuvaRing clear exible ring that is inserted into the vagina and worn for 3 weeks Slowly releases estrogen and progestin and after 3 weeks is removed for a ringfree week Release less hormone than the pull regarded as very safe 3 lnjectable Contraception o DepoProvera market name for medroxyprogesterone acetate a chemical that when injected suppresses ovulation for 3 months After a women stops injection it take 910 months for fertility to return Emergency Contraception 0 Methods that prevent conception when se dint he rst few days after sexual intercourse 3 Plan B OneStep 50 effective if taken within 3 days Most effective method is implementation of a copper IUD within 5 days Works by preventing ovulation and fertilization O O 90 09 O 09 LongActing Reversible Contraception 3 The IUD o Intrauterine device a birth control device usually made of plastic with either a copper or progesterone coating that is placed in the uterus to prevent conception and implantation o Remains effect for 57 years 0 Hormone Implants o Nexplanon a hormone implant with a single progestin releasing rod that is effective for 3 years 0 Major side effect is irregular vaginal bleeding followed by little or no bleeding 0 jadelle two progestinreleasing rods that is effective for 5 years Voluntary Sterilization 3 Vasectomy the male sterilization technique in which the vas deferens is tied off and cut thus preventing the passage of sperm through the reproductive tract 0 Contraceptives should be used for 3 months or until the man has ejaculated 20 times 0 Tubal sterilization a general term for variety of female striation techies that prevent passed of an egg through the fallopian tubes 0 Transabdominal 1 inch incision are made in the abdomen and the fallopian tubes are pulled to the opening cut tied or blocked with clips 0 Laparoscopy a procedure in which a Iaparoscope is inserted trough a small incision in the naval Once the tubes are located they are cut or cauterized o Transcervical procedures No incisions and general anesthesia is not required The essuure device irrigate the lining of the tubes resulting in scar tissue that plugs them The adiana device emits a radio frequency that cause tubule lesions 0 Reduces the risk of ovarian cancer 0 Can Sterilization Be reversed o No guarantee 0 The pregnancy rate after a vasectomy reversal is between 4060 0 4388 for tubal sterilization Future Technology 00 For Men 0 25 of men are willing to use hormonal contraception o Difficult to nd a pill that inhibits sperm while not reducing sex drive 0 Targeting a molecule called retinoic acid the advantage of this is that it would stop sperm production without interfering with gonadal hormone 00 For Women 0 Variety of new female condoms are also under development as are new safer estrogen and progesterone s for use with hormone contraceptives 00 Vaccination o Researches are trying to develop vaccines that will cause the body to produce antibodies to proteins in either sperm oregg o Vaccines that target sperm or egg production function or outcome 3 Legal Concerns 0 Liability o Juries will side with the individual who believes the corporation can afford it a couple blamed their child s birth defect on spermicides Terminating Pregnancies Abortion 3 Abortion termination of pregnancy 0 Depending on how far the pregnancy has advanced this can be done by taking a pill RU 486 scraping the uterine lining dilation and curettage removing the uterine lining by suction dilation and evacuation or inducing labor by injecting hypertonic saline or prostaglandins 0 Over 40 million performed annually 0 Nearly 90 do it within 12 weeks of conception and 62 within 8 weeks 0 Medical nonsurgical abortion RU 486 pill that chemically induces an abortion up to 8 weeks 92 effective blocks the body s use of progesterone the hormone necessary for maintain the endometrium uterus thus causing shedding of the uterine lining side effects nausea cramping and prolonged uterine bleeding 0 Dilation and evacuation I Tube is inserted through the cervix and the fetal material is removed by suction 88 are performed by this method Can be done 8 days after conception and only takes 5 minutes Can we done without anesthesia 46 weeks 712 require it o lnducedlabor Pregnancy has proceeded beyond 16 weeks Hypertonic saline and prostaglandins is injected into the amniotic sac and induces labor Fetus is born dead 0 Emotional Reactions Women who have rst trimester abortions do not experience emotional or psychological problems afterwards at a rate any greater than women who give birth to unwanted babies 0 The Present Status and Future of Abortion I Roe v Wade prohibited states from interfering with decisions made between a woman and her doctor 24 hour waiting periods doctor must tell woman about other options required parental noti cation in the case of minors
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