AMH 2097 Notes Week 8/31 - 9/4
AMH 2097 Notes Week 8/31 - 9/4 amh 2097
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Derick Grandoit on Monday October 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to amh 2097 at Florida State University taught by Pam Robbins in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see American History race and ethnicity in History at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 10/05/15
Fall 16 AMH 2097 831 94 Week 2 Type the company address AMH 2097 Monday August 31st 0 Puritans In Holland Governor John Winthrop O Tended to be landowners not wealthy O Believed the church of England had retained with too much of Catholic origins O Believed the best choice was to break away from Church of England 0 In 1609 Puritans Separatist settled in the Netherlands I Netherlands was known for religious tolerance O In 1617 felt that they adjusted to well to Netherlands I Wanted to retain their English values felt they were too Dutch 0 Due to this a portion of them decided to break away to join North America I Were to land in Virginia ended up in New England I Rejected the church hierarchy sacraments baptisms I Felt that sermons and reading the bible was enough 0 More personal faith I Believed in Calvinism 0 God choose the saved elect and the damned before birth 0 Actions on Earth could not affect your destiny I God drops hints by ones status I Puritans set up a city on a hill to save city from poverty decay I Set up in Plymouth Bay Massachusetts in 1620 I Squanto 0 One of 20 Indians in the Plymouth settlement I Was kidnapped sent to Spain moved to England learned English came back to Plymouth 0 Helped Puritans 0 Hunt 0 Plant 0 Establish relations with locals tribal groups I Responsible for first Thanksgiving I City On A Hill I Puritans believed god sent them to settle in Plymouth 0 Felt that they were making a city that was to be an example to England and the rest of the world 0 Believed that the city would promote peace and prosperity Everyone was in charge of each others unified well being I In Puritan society Rich received the best land and best positions 0 Churches were congregational each church had own hierarchy 0 Earn church membership 0 Make public declaration of faith 0 Women and Blacks could be members but not have leadership Land ownership and church membership decided ones status No room for judgment or you would be banished from colony I Roger Williams Critical of Puritans Rejected 0 The ideas of Calvinism 0 Punishing people for breaking laws Puritans had no right to land they occupied Established Rhode Islands 0 Accepted all religions I Anne Hutchinson Triangle Trade Route Midwife 0 High status Held gossiping where she discussed thoughts of Puritans church 0 Accused ministers of faulty preaching s O Criticized Calvinism Called upon authorities 0 Expelled form Massachusetts Bay colony with followers I Included prominent businessman Colony moved to Rhode Island then later moved to Long Island By the 1730 s Hutchinson ideas 0 Established by 18th Century I Raw materials sent from North America to Europe I Manufactured Goods sent from Europe to Africa to trade for people I Slaves sent from Africa to North America 0 In the early 1500s I Africans who would later become slaves were Translators Worked with Spanish Over lookers Married into Spanish 0 English formed racial attitudes I Came to the conclusion Africans were all one group not tribes They were less intelligent 0 Due to technology I Used these conclusions as justification for slave trade and cruelty O Olaugah Equiano I Became a slave at 11 in 1710 s I Lived for decades after being trade not common I Traveled from Africa to Caribbean to England I Young and Strong I Viewed as ideal slave I Released stories of experiences Slaves were tied together Captured Africans attempted suicide Died of starvation or dehydration Once arrived at ship 0 They were examined by doctors and quoted for prices 0 Branded to mark ownership Slaves could not eat 0 Force feed Women slaves were raped and sexual assaulted 0 Viewed as pleasure toys for crew Under feed not given reasonable water Several ships had revolts and uprising Captains O Controlled the mortality rate 0 Controlled uprisings by combining con icting tribal group s on ships 0 Six month journey Once in North America 0 Learned new language 0 About two thirds of slaves made it off the ship 0 About one forth lived past a decade I How Slavery Progressed Established slave codes define this 0 Guidelines of what is allowed Puritans had slaves by Virginia had slaves by 1620 s Some colonies had struggles accepting slavery I Northern Slavery Black Alice 0 Worked as ticket in Philadelphia 0 Died in 1802 O Enslaved in North I Did not perform farm work I More domestic work I Worked for wages but turned them to masters I More contact with whites I Attended church 0 Spoke with whites I Gaines respect as a black I Could not be murdered by master I Could make contracts I Attend courts to argue freedom I Treated as indentured servants 0 Phillis Wheatley O O O O O O O 0 Born in 1755 in Gambia Captured in North America by 1804 Name d after ship first name mater last name Learned and allowed to read Published poems by age 13 I Wrote eulogies and political poems I Did not discuss status I Argued that blacks could be as intelligent as whites Invited to White House by George Washington Put on trial for plagiarism I England did not believe she could produce poems First African American poet First woman to comment on politics I Slavery in South 0 By the end of 1600 s 0 O O O O Slave society was cemented Blacks were considered slaves I Children of slaves were automatic slaves Banned sex and marriage of two different racial groups Conversion to Christianity did not grant freedom Freed slaves had to be transported from colonies by master 0 Bacons Rebellion O O 0 Led by Bacon who led poor whites and slaves Burned Jamestown Turned white landowners to slavery 0 First Half of 1700 s 0 Field labor was black and enslaved 0 In Virginia and Maryland was a low death rate and gender balance 0 Reproduction was used to continue slavery O Slaves usually worked seasonally I But by mid 1700s year round work was expected Wednesday September 2 0 British Colonies 0 1700 1770 I Settlers pushed west I The population of British colonies in 1700 was 26500 included slaves I The population by 1770 was 23 million I England s economy was growing during the early 1700 s so the poor migrated I As the colonies progressed England s elite began to leave as well 0 England encouraged European Protestants the opportunity to migrate 0 Germany other European migrants I Called to migrate to North America by England I During the 17001770 period Germany was a collection of six colonies I Critics of the Catholic church developed into Lutheran I Migrated to Russian and Hungary instead of America I Traveled in family groups I Usually went into migration with debt I Settled in the rural backcountry in North America 0 Virginia I New York I Lived in close knit communities I Same religion I Didn t own slaves hire servants farm cash crops I Created self reliant countries 0 Farmed own animals 0 Farmed own crops I Apolitical due to lack of English knowledge I 17001770 s Colonies I No separation of church and state I Protestants groups ourished 0 The Great Awakening Religious prospering in North America Practiced more personal form of religion Redraw the American religious map Created Presbytranen Methodists Baptists No military draft Absence of restraint of economic activity 0 Could change jobs 0 Could enter trade and professions at ease Low taxes 0000 Freedom of movement travel Trial by jury of peers 1730 O Colonist pushed further west I Due to high standard values of land ownership 0 Republicanism and Liberalism I In the 1700 s England began to battle France Lead to high taxes Military I Economy English believed they had the highest standard of living Had individual liberty Other Europeans used English liberty as basis for rebellion and riots I Republicanism Active participation in public life by economical independent citizens Emphasizes and promotes the participation of public life by economically independent citizens 0 Only property owners should vote and hold office 0 Individuals who worked for waged were viewed as economically dependent Bias towards landowners 0 More government positions should be elected instead of king appointed government positions 0 I Liberalism Based on private liberates Believe that each individual has natural rights John Locke 0 Published ideas in 1680 s ideas were not recognized until 1700 s 0 Government was formed by a social contract between equals 0 People gave up certain rights associated with self government 0 Each individual was subject to individual rights I Government had to defend these rights 0 Life 0 Liberty 0 Property I Condemned slavery I Right to divorce I Women rights 0 Slaves others women s agreed and used Locke s theories 0 Prior to liberalism people saw govemment people relationship as a family dynamic 0 Government was the father 0 Right to vote 0 Right held only by white landowning men 0 Fewer 20 of eligible voters voted 0 Very bias voting system I Colonial Politics 0 Higher property requirements to gain right to hold office I Salutary neglect 0 England adopted this attitude toward colonies I Colonies were left to govern themselves 0 Consisted of I Elected consul I Elected governor I Appointed governor O Demanded I Higher salaries I More power 0 Assemblies authorized I Electoral terms I Paper money replaced gold and silver Friday September 4 The Great Awakening Emphasized tension between personal liberty and elected power 0 By the early 1700 s I Libraries were up and running Newspaper then reported English news politics Criminal penalties for cursing No freedom of the press Liebook Sued for criticizing political officials As long as what was reported was true papers could report 0 Enlightenment 1700 s Emphasized reason analysis and individualism rather than traditional lines of authority Originated in France Argued that the scientific method should be applied to political life s and social life s Benjamin Franklin Poor Richards Almanac Proved lightening was a form of electricity Most well known American of 1700 s Criticized how leadership is hereditary based instead of reason Deists God was best worshiped through studying instead of attending church or praying O Believed in god however they felt that god wanted to be worshiped by scientific discovery and studying Religion was controversial 0 Religious debates discussed in newspapers commonly The Great Awakening Term 0 Evangelical and revitalization movement in 1730 s 1740 s 0 John Edwards 1703 1758 O O O O I Developed a more aggressive style of sermon and preaching that became popular during the Great Awakening Revivals caused division in American society Opponents of Awakening organized they I Condemned uneducated people who followed uneducated preaches I Congregations split amongst the nation I Methodists Baptists Presbyterians Preachers criticized the elite of society I Felt colonists needed to focus on salvation instead of economy I Criticized slaveholders merchants slave owners I Condemned slavery I Converted people freed their slaves Slaves converted I Grew into preachers Women also would convert and sometimes become preachers Caused political consequences 0 Plan of Union Term 0 0 Once colonists converted they questioned paying taxes to church Colonies did not give up established churches causing con icts Colonial newspaper printed more bold stories British left the colonies to handle con icts independently until late 1700 s Politicians adapted Great Awakening values I Used religion and politics hand in hand I In the 1750 s English colonies were challenged by the French French and Indian War Plan of Union I Drawn up by Benjamin Franklin I Proposed to created a colonial congress 0 Dealt with boundary issues and I British did not agree 0 Felt it gave the colonies too much power I The Iraquo Indians felt that the plan of union did not respect them as it left them out of the congress 0 Accepted for help with trade