New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Psychology Week 8 Notes

by: Meagan

Psychology Week 8 Notes Psych 2010

Marketplace > Auburn University > Psychlogy > Psych 2010 > Psychology Week 8 Notes

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These Notes cover the lecture from class on Development.
Introduction to Psychology
Aimee A Callender
Class Notes
Psychology, Social Science, Humanities
25 ?




Popular in Introduction to Psychology

Popular in Psychlogy

This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meagan on Sunday March 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 2010 at Auburn University taught by Aimee A Callender in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.


Reviews for Psychology Week 8 Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 03/20/16
Development: Chapter 9  Development o Sequence of age related changes  Physical  Emotional  Cognitive o Continuous or gradual o Focus on development over entire lifetime  Research in Development o Longitudinal (within subject)  Same participants all the time (baby to adult) o Cross-sectional (between subjects)  Difference between 4 years and 8 years old (so different children)  Prenatal Development o Time from conception to birth o 3 stages  Germinal (Fertilization to Implantation)  Embryonic (2 weeks to 2 months)  Very vulnerable  End is when first bone cell is developed  Fetal (2 months to 40 weeks)  All systems complete  Age of Viability (~ 24 weeks)  This can effect later development  Prenatal Environment o Nutrition  Birth Weight  Obesity  Schizophrenia  Antisocial personality disorder  Depression (in girls)  Cognitive impairment (attention, planning/execution of fine motor skills)  Drug/Alcohol use  Teratogens o Anything that damages development  3 drinks/day  5 point decrease in IQ  Fetal Alcohol syndrome (FAS) o Certain patterns physically and cognitively  Microcephaly  Heart defects  Hyperactivity  Mental Retardation  Working memory  Developmental delay  Depression  Lying  Suicide  Criminal Behavior o Stays forever  Smoking  Impaired cognitive development, ADD  Childhood development o Motor Development  Reflexes for survival  Examine them to make sure neurological function is intact  Rooting/sucking o Turn head to find milk  Moro (0-4 months) o Startling the baby o Eventually this goes away  Grasp (0-6 months)  Stepping/walking (0-3 months)  Babinski (until ~2 years old) o Stroke the heal of the foot and it will go back  Trends  Driven by child o Large ranges in milestone (walking 11-15 months) o Cultural constraints  Some try to do everything they can to get baby to walk and some people in different countries hold the baby more o Dynamic systems theory  Childhood development determined by biological, cultural, or environmental factors  Proximodistal  Center to outer parts  Cephalocaudal  Top to bottom o Social and Emotional Development  Attachment-Emotional Bond with Caregiver  WWII Studies  Many babies left in orphanages because parents died in war  Harry Harlow  Studies effects of bond with caregiver  Rhesus Monkeys o No social contact  pathologies o Caregivers provide social contact  Attachment (emotional bond)  Determine primary caregiver in first 6 months  Emotional center of universe o Separation anxiety (6-8 months)  Types o Strange situation experiment o Secure  Comforted when caregiver comes back (60%) o Avoidant  Avoid or ignores caregiver when comes back (20%) o Ambivalent/Resistant  Wants comfort but can’t be comforted when caregiver comes back (15%) o Disorganized  Sometimes comforted or not when caregiver comes back (5%) o Cognitive Development  How babies begin to understand the world  Much slower process  Emergence of abilities to understand the world  Piaget  4 stages of Development  Children as active thinkers  Schemas used to understand the world:  Assimilation o New info is incorporated into the schema  Accommodation o Schema changes to allow new info to be included  Piaget’s 4 Stages of Development 1) Sensorimotor stages  Experiencing the world through senses and actions  Ages: 0-2 years  Developmental Phenomena: i. Object permanence (~8 months)  Even if can’t see it anymore, still exists 2) Preoperational Stage  Representing things with words and images  Ages: 2-6 or 7  Substages i. Symbolic function (2-4)  Symbols and language  Imaginary play begins ii. Intuitive thought (4-7)  Ask why?  Centration a. Children hone in on one aspect or characteristic of something  Developmental phenomena i. Pretend play ii. Egocentrism  Can’t share other’s viewpoints iii. Animism  All things are living iv. Language Development  Cannot perform Operations i. Reversible actions ii. Conservation  Physical quantities remain constant 3) Concrete Operational Stage  Ages: 7-11  Developmental Phenomena i. Think logically about concrete events ii. Reversibility  Mathematical operations a. If 5+3=8 then 8-3=5 iii. Decentration  Elimination of egocentrism 4) Formal Operational Stage  Ages: 12 years – adulthood  Developmental Phenomena i. Abstract logic ii. Potential for moral reasoning  Limitations to Piaget’s Theory o Overestimates age differences  Object permanence can be seen at 3 months  Measure a babies’ gaze time during an impossible event there is a longer gaze time because they know something is off about it  Not all adults can think abstractly o Underestimates social environment  Little Scientists  Gopnik  Children can take on other’s points of view  Bowl of goldfish and bowl of broccoli and use 15 and 18 months old children  Researcher says eww to the goldfish o 15 month old still gives goldfish because they like it o 18 month old gives broccoli because they understand that the researcher likes broccoli more  Vygotsky  Social interaction  Language is essential to development o Noncommuncative speech  Thinking out loud o Inner speech  Verbal though  Richer set of symbols o Dialogue between child and caregiver o Collaboration and cognitive development  Scaffolding  Caregiver changes where needed to support child  Zone of Proximal development  Place where child understands  Dialogue improves understanding o Little Apprentice  Development of Moral Reasoning o Associated with cognitive development o Different from moral behavior o Kohlberg’s Stage Theory  Preconventional (Punishments and Rewards)  Conventional (approval and authority)  Postconventional (social contract and conscience) Adolescence and Adulthood  Stages of Psychosocial Development o Erikson’s Theory  As people grow up think about different issues  Focus on Identity vs. Role Confusion and Intimacy Vs. Isolation  Adolescence o Begins with sexual maturity  Ages 11 – 14 o Last until beginning of adulthood  Ages 18 -21 o Sudden marked change  Sex characteristics (primary and secondary)  Brain density o Puberty  The bodily changes associated with sexual maturity  Starts at different ages for everyone  Generation trend  Older generations: puberty occurred later o Age 16/17  Younger generation: puberty can start earlier o Age 13/14 o Protracted Adolescence  Earlier onset of puberty  Environmental cause  Psychological impact  Discrepancy between physical maturity and taking on adult roles o Emerging Adulthood  5 milestones in Transition to adulthood:  Completing school  Leaving home  Becoming financially independent  Marrying  Having a child (or no) o Adulthood  Starts between 18-21 and ends at death  Changes are more gradual and less noticeable  Physical changes  Early 20s are peak years for health, stamina and vigor  From 26-30 your body will slowly begin to decline  Cognitive changes:  Sharpest in our early 20s  Compensate by using our brain more skillfully  Emotional changes  Orientation shift from the future to present  Focus on positive  Fewer friends


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.