Notes on Vascular/ Nonvascular Plants
Notes on Vascular/ Nonvascular Plants BIO 121
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Holden Hershey on Monday October 27, 2014. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 121 at Syracuse University taught by Wiles in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 308 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 10/27/14
NonvascularVascular Land Plant Morphology 39w39nnva5uar u39ascuar Jant5 FNE39 5EE 5 Seed pgla Ancestral N g G reen p9 7 V lg 7j fquotS 39nkg a We 8 8 wrrt5 39 39 6 9 ir5t vascu a r plants Mosses and Nonvaseular Plants Represented by three phyla of small herbaceous plants Hepatophyta o Bryophyta Hornworts Anthocerophyta Liverworts Liver shaped gametophytes Flattened shape of gametes Stem like gametophytes with leaf like appendages Mosses Mainly gametophytes Typically elongated and visible to the naked eye Heights vary Green color Young Red quotanBrown color Ready to release spores Hornworts Long tapered shape of the sporophyte Sporophytes lack seta and consist of only sporangium Gametophytes have multiple sporophytes attached First species to colonize open areas with moist soils Nitrogen Fixation relationships with related bacteria Earliest lineages to diverge from the common ancestors of Land Plants Protonema a mass of green branched once cell thick filaments Germinating moss spores Gametophore gamete producing structure generated by the apical stem of bud like growths Some mosses have conducting tissues in the center of their stems Rhizoids tubular single cells in Liverworts or Hornworts or filaments of cells in mosses Not composed of tissue Lack specialized conduction calls and do not play a primary role In water and mineral absorption Life Cvcle of a Moss 1 Spores develop into threadlike Protonemata 2 Haploid Protonemata produce buds that divide by mitosis and grow into gametophores 3 Sperm swim through a moisture of film to reach the egg 4 The zygote develops into a sporophyte embryo 5 The sporophyte grows a long stalk Q that emerges from the Arche gonium 6 Attached by its foot the sporophyte remains nutritionally dependent on the gametophyte 7 Meiosis occurs and haploid spores develop in the capsule When the capsule is mature its lid pops of and the spores are released Brvophvte Sporobhvtes Contain plastids that are usually green and photosynthetic when the sporophytes are young Remains attached to its parental gametophyte throughout the sporophyte s ly etime dependent on the gametophyte for supplies of sugars amino acids minerals and water Bryophytes have the smallest of all sporophytes in extant plant groups quotConsistent with the hypothesis that larger sporophytes developed later in vascular plants Foot in the archegonium Absorbs nutrients from the gametophyte Q Stalk Conducts materials to the sporangium aka the capsule uses them to produce spores by meiosis Upper part of the capsule features a ring of interlocking tooth like structures know as peristome EcologicalEconomic Importance of Mosses Nitrogen Fixation Increase availability of nitrogen in the ecosystem Phenolic compounds in moss cell walls absorb damaging levels of UV radiation present in deserts or at high altitudes Peat major component of deposits or partially decayed organic material Fuel source for Europe and Asia Useful as a soil conditioner If global temperatures continue to rise peat reproduction will continue to drop During the first 100 million years of plant development Bryophytes were prominent types of vegetation Vascular Plants 0ri2ins Traits Early vascular plants had branched sporophytes that were not dependent of gametophytes for nutrition Main Traits that characterize vascular plants Ly e cycles with dominant sporophytes Transport in vascular tissues called g and phloem Well developed roots and leaves including spore bearing leaves called sporophylls 93 of all extant plant species Can be categorized into smaller clades Lycophytes Club mosses and their relatives Monilophytes Ferns and their relatives LvcovhvtesMonilophvtes Called Seedless Vascular Plants share common ancestors with seed plants Gymnosperms grouped together as naked seed plants because their seeds are not enclosed in chambers Angiosperms all flowering plants their seeds develop inside chambers that originate within flowers Life Cvcle of a Fern 1 Sporangia release spores Most fern species produce a single type of spore that develops into a bisexual photosynthetic gametophyte 2 Each gametophyte develops sperm producing organs called antheridia and egg producing organs called arche gonia Typically the sperm from one gametophyte fertilizes an egg from another gametophyte 3 Sperm use agella to swim to eggs in the arche gonia The archegonium secretes an attractant that helps direct the sperm 4 A zygote develops into a new sporophyte and the young plant grows out from and archegonium of its parents producing the gametophyte Each sporophyte has reproductive leaves contain spots called Li Clusters of sori are called a sorus Xylem conducts water and minerals throughout the vascular tissue of a plant Tracheids tube shaped cells that carry water and minerals up from the roots Li gnin a polymer that strengthens cell walls Phloem tissue that has cells arranged into tubes that distribute sugars amino acids and other organic products Competition among vascular plants has increased Taller growths are favored bv natural selection this is whv trees formed the first forests about 385 million years ago Evolution of Roots 0rgans that absorb water and nutrients from the soil Also anchor vascular plants which allows them to grow tall and straight Root tissues of living plants resemble stem tissues of early vascular plants preserved by fossils Evolution of Leaves Increase the surface area of the plant body Serve as the primary photosynthetic organ of vascular plants Microphylls small spine shaped leaves supported by a single strand of vascular tissue Me gaphylls leaves with highly branched vascular system Sporonhvlls and Snore Variation Sporophylls modified leaves that bear sporangia SoriSorus Homosporous most seedless vascular plant species that have one type of sporangium that produces one type of spore which typically develops into a bisexual gametophyte Heterosporous species that have two types of sporangia and produce two kinds of spores me gaspores which develop into female gametophytes and microspores which develop into male gametophytes Homosporous Spore Production Sporangium on Sporophyllgt Single Type of Spore gtBisexual GametophytegtEggsSperm HeterozV2oiis Snore Procgiction Megasporangium or megasporophyllgt Megasporegt Female Gametophytegt Eggs Microsporangium or Microsporophyllgt M icrosporegt Male Gametophytegt Sperm General Terminologvinfo Rings of CelluloseSvnthesizing Proteins Distinctive circular rings of protein I the plasma membrane Protein rings synthesize the cellulose of microfibrils of the cell wall Structure of F lagellated Sperm Species of land plants have flagellated sperm Structure of land plant sperm resemble charophyte sperm Formation of Phragmoplast Details pertaining to cell division Use of a cell plate Sporopollenin prevents exposed zygotes from drying out Alternation of Generations Reproductive cell cycle evolved in various groups of algae but does not occur in charophytes Algae most similar to land plants Gametophyte multicellular haploid Produced by Mitosis of haploid gametes eggsperm that fuse during fertilization forming diploid zygotes Sporophyte multicellular diploid Spores haploids reproductive cells that can develop into a new haploid organism Embryophytes aka Land Plants Because the multicellular dependent embryo is a significant derived trait Sporangia the multicellular organs of a sporophyte Produces spores Sporocytes diploid cells and spore mother cells Undergo meiosis and generate haploid spores Gametangia multicellular organs that produce gametes Archegonia Female Gametangia pear shaped organ Antheridia Male Gametangia produce sperm and release them to the environment each egg is fertilized with a arche gonium where the zygote develops into an embryo Apical Meristems localized regions of cell division at the tips of roots and shoots Cuticle Composed of wax and other polymers Serves as the cover of the epidermis Prevents excessive water loss Stomata Support photosynthesis by allowing the exchange of co2 and o2 Main avenues by which water evaporates from the plant In hot environments stomata close to prevent water loss What distinguishes the spores of land plants from those ofAlgae Chemical Composition Spore bearing tissue in fossils of plants Vascular Tissue cells joined into tubes that transport water and nutrients throughout the body of a plant Vascular Plants plants that contain a complex vascular tissue system Bryophytes nonvascular plants do not form a monophyletic group Paraphyletic Over time derived traits of living vascular plants arose such as a life cvcle with dominant sporophvtes lignified vascular tissue well developed roots and eaves and sporophvlls Seedless vascular plants formed the earliest forests about 385 million years ago Their growth may have contributed to a major global cooling that took place during the carboniferous period The decaving remnants of the first forests eventuallv became coal Charophytes are the only present day algae that share the following distinctive traits with land plants suggesting that they are the closest living relatives of plants
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