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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sadye Osinski Sr. on Monday October 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 216 at Christian Brothers University taught by Arthur Salgado in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see /class/219443/biol-216-christian-brothers-university in Biology at Christian Brothers University.
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Date Created: 10/05/15
BRYOPHYTE AND SEEDLESS PLANTS GLOSSARY A archegonium a multicellular structure that contains an egg cell antheridium a multicellular spermproducing structure found in the bryophytes and in some vascular plants alternation of generations a reproductive cycle in which a haploid phase the gametophyte produces gametes which after fusion in pairs to form a zygote germinate producing a diploid phase the sporophyte angiosperm one of a group of plants whose seeds are borne within a mature ovary fruit asexual reproduction the creation of new individual plants without the involvement of gametes vegetative reproduction such as the formation and rooting of plantlets leaves and stems fragmentation of rhizomes axillary bud a bud that forms in the upper angle axil between a stem and a leaf brood body a structure that functions as a vegetative propagule such as gemmae bulbils and underground tubers a term usually restricted to the bryophytes a form of asexual reproduction bipinnate having each segment pinna of a leaf divided to the midrib into secondary pinna see pinna and pinnate bryophytes the members of the phyla of nonvascular plants mosses homworts and liverworts C capsule the sporangium of bryophytes calyptra the hood or cap that partially or entirely covers the capsule of some mosses formed from the top half of the expanded archegonium cilia ne hairs on the leaves and stems of some liverworts coelocaule a hollow outgrowth from a leafy liverwort stem that surrounds an archegonium compound leaf a leaf whose blade is divided into several distinct lea ets cone a sporangiumcontaining structure consisting of a number of modi ed leaves or ovulebearing scales grouped terminally on a stem a strobilus conifer a conebearing tree a member of the phylum Coniferophyta clubmoss small creeping or pendulous plants with narrow evergreen leaves microphylls and in some terminal clublike cones members of the phylum Lycophyta cladophyll a branch resembling a foliage leaf cuticle a waxy or fatty layer on the outer wall of epidermal cells formed of cutin and wax cotyledon the rst leaf formed by the embryo in seed plants D diploid having two sets of chromosomes characteristic of the sporophyte generation of plants dichotomy ad dichotomous the division or forking of a stem into two branches divaricating branching at widely divergent angles intertangled stems spreading at a wide angle dicotyledon or dicot those angiosperms characterized by having two cotyledons in their seeds dehiscing or dehiscent said of any structure that is rupturing or splitting open capsule opening in the bryophytes elater a lamentous spirally thickened cell which changes shape with humidity endemic n endemism restricted to a certain region epiphyte a plant that grows upon another plant but is not parasitic on it foot the lower portion of the moss sporophyte that is embedded in the tip of the moss stem an absorbing organ flagellum pl agella a long threadlike organelle that protrudes from the surface of a sperm cell used in locomotion ower a reproductive structure of angiosperms in its generalized form consisting of sepals petals stamens and carpels frond the leaf of a fern G gametangium a multicellular structure in which gametes are formed gamete a haploid reproductive cell gametes fuse in pairs forming diploid zygotes gametophyte the gameteforming haploid In More detail gemma pl gemmae a small mass ofvegetative tissue that when broken off can form a new plant common in the bryophytes gymnosperm a seed plant with seeds not enclosed in an ovary H haploid having one set of chromosomes characteristic of the gametophyte generation hepatics a term for the liverworts or Hepatophyta heterospory adj heterosporous having two types ofspores 39 39 39 as 39 and homospory adj homosporous having only one kind or size of spore hydroid water transporting cells found in some mosses I indusium a membranous growth of the epidermis of a fern leaf that covers a group of sporangia sorus integument the outermost layer of tissue enveloping the ovule develops into the seed coat internode the part ofa stem between two successive nodes lamina the blade ofa leaf leptoid carbohydrate transporting cells found in some mosses lignin a longchain molecule added to cell walls that imparts great strength and stiffness also is a waterproo ng agent in cell walls M meiosis two successive nuclear divisions in which the chromosome number is reduced from diploid to haploid and the segregation of genes occurs meiosis in plants takes place during spore formation micropyle a pore in the outer integument of an ovule that leads to the sporangium inside mitosis one nuclear division in which the duplicated chromosomes separate and the daughter chromosomes form two genetically identical daughter nuclei mitosis in plants takes place in somatic tissue during growth and also during the formation of sperm and eggs morphology the study of form and its development megaspore in heterosporous plants a large spore that develops into a female gametophyte meristem the undifferentiated perpetually young plant tissue from which new cells arise microphyll a small leaf with one vein and one leaf trace that does not leave a gap in the vascular cylinder of the stem common in the Lycophyta microspore in heterosporous plants a small spore that develops into a male gametophyte megaphyll generally a large leaf with several to many veins its leaf traces leave gaps leaf gaps in the vascular cylinder monocotyledon monocot a plant whose embryo has one cotyledon one ofthe two great classes of angiosperrns mycorrhiza pl mycorrhizae a symbiotic association between certain fungi and plant roots characteristic of most vascular plants microspore a spore that develops into a male 39 39 39 39 of39 plants 1 a 1 N nitrogen xation the incorporation of atmospheric nitrogen into nitrogen compounds canied out by certain freeliving and symbiotic bacteria node the region of the stem where leaves are attached 0 operculum in mosses the lid of the capsule or sporangium paraphyllia ne outgrowths from the stem in some mosses paraphysis pl paraphyses sterile laments growing among the gametangia of most mosses and some liverworts that aid in the retention of water parenchyma living thin walled cells of variable size and form More detail peristome in mosses the fringe of teeth around the opening of the capsule sporangium petiole the stem or stalk of a leaf phloem the foodconducting tissue of vascular plants phylloclade a photosynthetic and attened stem a phyllode pinna in ferns a segment of a divided frond usually designated primary secondary tertiary etc according to the degree of dissection pinnate frond having the lamina leaf blade divided into separate lea ets pinnae attached on either side of the midrib rachis pinnate branching smaller lateral branches attached on either side of the main stem pollen grain a dispersal agent consisting of an immature male gametophyte surrounded by a protective wall characteristic of the seed plants pollen tube a tube that emerges from the pollen grain during germination on the stigma carries the male gametes to the female gametophyte pollination drop a secretion released by many gynmosperm ovules to capture pollen grains When this evaporates the pollen grains are drawn down inside the ovule where they germinate protonema pl protonemata the rst stage in development of the gametophyte of mosses and certain liverworts usually lamentous in form R rhizome a creeping or climbing stem most often on the surface or close to the surface of the ground rhizoid a single cell or several lamentous cells in bryophytes and some vascular plants which occur in freeliving gametophytes important for anchorage rachis the aXis of the fern frond from which the pinnae arise S seed a structure formed by the maturation of the ovule of seed plants following fertilization seta in bryophytes the stalk that supports the capsule part of the sporophyte sexual reproduction the fusion of gametes followed by meiosis and recombination at some point in the life cycle sim ple leaf an undivided entire leaf sporangium pl sporangia a saclike structure in which spores are produced sorus pl sori in the ferns a group or cluster of sporangia spore a haploid cell with a thick protective wall a dispersal unit capable of germinating into an adult in plants produced by meiosis sporocyte a diploid cell that divides by meiosis to produce four spore cells sporophyte the sporeforming diploid 2n plant More detail stipe the stalk of a fern leaf stipule lea ike appendage that occurs at the point of leaf insertion at a node a characteristic feature of some groups of plants sporangium a multicellular structure in which spores are produced spore case stolon a stem that grows horizontally along the ground surface and may form adventitious roots and new plants strobilus a reproductive structure consisting of a number of modi ed leaves or ovulebearing scales grouped terminally on a stem a cone symbiosis the living together of two organisms taxonomy the science of the classi cation of organisms tomentose covered closely with ne hairs trachid a tapering cell with pits thin cell wall in the side walls conducts water in the xylem tuber a short eshy and enlarged underground stem thallus a type of body that is undifferentiated into organs eg lacking an organization into leaf stem or root V vascular pertains to any plant tissue or region consisting of conducting tissue xylem phloem More details vessel a series of vessel elements cells joined end to end conducts water in the xylem of owering plants vessel element a water conducting cell with perforations no cell wall on the end walls vascular tissue waterconducting xylem and sucroseconducting phloem tissues W wood water conducting xylem tissue that accumulates in trees and woody shrubs X xylem water conducting tissue of vascular plants zygote the diploid cell resulting from the fusion of male and female gametes
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