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Mentored Research III

by: Sadye Osinski Sr.

Mentored Research III BIOL 465

Sadye Osinski Sr.

GPA 3.63


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Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sadye Osinski Sr. on Monday October 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 465 at Christian Brothers University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see /class/219448/biol-465-christian-brothers-university in Biology at Christian Brothers University.


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Date Created: 10/05/15
PARAGRAPH httpowlenglish purdueeduhandoutsgeneralglsentclarhtml What is a paragraph A paragraph is a collection of related sentences dealing with a single topic To be as effective as possible a paragraph should contain each ofthe following Unity Coherence A Topic Sentence and Adequate Development All of these traits overlap Using and adapting them to your individual purposes will help you construct effective paragraphs 1 Unity The entire paragraph should concern itself with a single focus If it begins with a one focus or major point of discussion it should not end with another or wander within different ideas 2 Coherence Coherence is the trait that makes the paragraph easily understandable to a reader You can help create coherence in your paragraphs by creating logical bridges and verbal bridges 3 A topic sentence A topic sentence is a sentence that indicates in a general way what idea or thesis the paragraph is going to deal with An easy way to make sure your reader understands the topic ofthe paragraph is to put your topic sentence near the beginning ofthe paragraph Although not all paragraphs have clearcut topic sentences and despite the fact that topic sentences can occur anywhere in the paragraph as the first sentence the last sentence or somewhere in the middle 4 Adequate development The topic which is introduced by the topic sentence should be discussed fully and adequately This varies from paragraph to paragraph depending on the author39s purpose but writers should beware of paragraphs that only have two or three sentences It39s a pretty good bet that the paragraph is not fully developed if it is that short Some methods to make sure your paragraph is welldeveloped Cite data facts statistics evidence details and others Examine testimony what other people say such as quotes and paraphrases Compare and contrast Evaluate causes and reasons Examine effects and consequences Analyze the topic Offer a chronology of an event time segments BE CAREFUL ABOUT PLACEMENT OF SUBORDINATE CLAUSES Avoid interrupting the main clause with a subordinate clause ifthe interruption will cause confusion Clear subordinate clause at the end Industrial spying is increasing rapidly because ofthe growing use of computers to store and process corporate information Clear subordinate clause at the beginning Because ofthe growing use of computers to store and process corporate information industrial spying is increasing rapidly Not as clear subordinate clause embedded in the middle Industrial spying because ofthe growing use of computers to store and process corporate information is increasing rapidly USE PARALLEL CONSTRUCTIONS When you have a series of words phrases or clauses put them in parallel form similar grammatical construction so that the reader can identify the linking relationship more easily and clearly Clear parallel In Florida where the threat of hurricanes is an annual event we learned that it is important 1 to become aware ofthe warning signs 2 to know what precautions to take and 3 to decide when to seek shelter Not as clear not parallel In Florida where the threat of hurricanes is an annual event we learned that it is important 1 to become aware ofthe warning signs 2 There are precautions to take and 3 deciding when to take shelter is important In the second sentence notice how the string of quotthings to be aware of in Floridaquot does not create a parallel structure Also notice how much more difficult it is for a reader to follow the meaning ofthe second sentence compared to the first one AVOID NOUN STRINGS Try not to string nouns together one after the other because a series of nouns is difficult to understand One way to revise a string of nouns is to change one noun to a verb Unclear string of nouns This report explains our investment growth stimulation projects Clearer This report explains our projects to stimulate growth in investments AVOID OVERUSING NOUN FORMS OF VERBS Use verbs when possible rather than noun forms known as quotnominalizationsquot Unclear use of nominalization The implementation ofthe plan was successful Clearer The plan was implemented successfully We implemented the plan successfully CHOOSE ACTION VERBS OVER FORMS OF BE When possible avoid using forms of be as the main verbs in your sentences and clauses This problem tends to accompany nominalization see above Instead of using a be verb focus on the actions you wish to express and choose the appropriate verbs In the following example two ideas are expressed 1 that there is a difference between television and newspaper news reporting and 2 the nature ofthat difference The revised version expresses these two main ideas in the two main verbs Unclear overuse of be verbs One difference between television news reporting and the coverage provided by newspapers is the time factor between the actual happening of an event and the time it takes to be reported The problem is that instantaneous coverage is physically impossible for newspapers Clearer Television news reporting differs from that of newspapers in that television unlike newspapers can provide instantaneous coverage of events as they happen AVOID UNCLEAR PRONOUN REFERENCES Be sure that the pronouns you use refer clearly to a noun in the current or previous sentence lfthe pronoun refers to a noun that has been implied but not stated you can clarify the reference by explicitly using that noun Unclear unclear pronoun reference With the spread of globalized capitalism American universities increasingly follow a corporate fiscal model tightening budgets and hiring temporary contract employees as teachers This has prompted faculty and adjunct instructors at many schools to join unions as a way of protecting job security and benefits Clearer With the spread of globalized capitalism American universities increasingly follow a corporate fiscal model tightening budgets and hiring temporary contract employees as teachers This trend has prompted faculty and adjunct instructors at many schools to join unions as a way of protecting job security and benefits RESULTS What are the quotresultsquot When you pose a testable hypothesis that can be answered experimentally or ask a question that can be answered by collecting samples you accumulate observations about those organisms or phenomena Those observations are then analyzed to yield an answer to the question The above statements apply regardless of the complexity of the analysis you employ The function ofthe Results section is to objectively present your key results without comments bias or interpretation The results should be presented in a logical manner in the text and figures A summary of your statistical analysis should be included here lnclude negative results Data presented in tables and figure should not substitute for a verbal summary of the findings The text should be understandable by someone who has not seen your figures and tables Organize the results section based on the sequence of Table and Figures you39ll include Prepare the Tables and Figures as soon as all the data are analyzed Arrange them in the sequence that best presents your findings in a logical way A good strategy is to note on a draft of each Table or Figure the one or two key results you want to address in the text portion of the Results Each Table and Figure must be referenced in the text portion ofthe results and you must tell the reader what the key results is that each Table or Figure conveys Style Write the text of the Results section concisely and objectively The passive voice will likely dominate here but use the active voice as much as possible Use the past tense Avoid repetitive paragraph structures Do not interpret the data here Writing the Results Authors usually write the text of the results section based upon this sequence of Tables and Figures The body ofthe Results section is a textbased presentation of the key findings which includes references to each of the Tables and Figures The text should guide the reader through your results stressing the key results which provide the answers to the questions investigated A major function of the text is to provide clarifying information You must refer to each Table andor Figure individually and in sequence see numbering sequence and clearly indicate for the reader the key results that each conveys Key results depend on your questions they might include obvious trends important differences similarities correlation maximums minimums etc Simple rules to follow related to Tables and Figures x Tables and Figures are assigned numbers separately and in the sequence that you will refer to them from the text The first Table you refer to is Table 1 the next Table 2 and so forth Similarly the first Figure is Figure 1 the next Figure 2 etc 2 Each Table or Figure must include a brief description ofthe results being presented and other necessary information in a legend Table legends go above the Table tables are read from top to bottom Figure legends go below the Figure figures are usually viewed from bottom to top 3 When referring to a Figure from the text quotFigurequot is abbreviated as Fig eg Fig 1 Table is never abbreviated eg Table 1 Avoid reiterating each value from a Figure or Table only the key result that each conveys Do not present the same data in both a Table and Figure this is considered redundant and a waste of space and energy Decide which format best shows the result and go with it Do not report raw data values when they can be summarized as means percents etc In scientific studies the use of the word quotsignificantquot implies that a statistical test was employed to make a decision about the data Avoid using this word otherwise Present the results of your experiments in a sequence that will logically support or provide evidence against the hypothesis or answer the question stated in the Introduction For example in reporting a study ofthe effect of an experimental diet on the skeletal mass of the rat consider first giving the data on skeletal mass for the rats fed the control diet and then give the data for the rats fed the experimental diet Always enter the appropriate units when reporting data or summary statistics Individual values should be written quotthe mean length was 10 mquot or quotthe maximum time was 40 minquot When including a measure of variability place the unit after the error value eg quotwas 10 r 23 mquot Likewise place the unit after the last in a series of numbers all having the same unit e g quotlengths of 5 10 15 and 20 mquot or quotno differences were observed after 2 4 6 or 8 min of incubationquot Miscellaneous points Almost Everything You Wanted to Know About Making Tables and Figures httpabacus batesedugandersobiologyresourceswritingHTWtablefigs htmlnumbering What are figures Figures include graphs diagrams photos drawings schematics maps etc The term quotFigurequot is the correct name for all ofthese different presentations What is a graph A graph is a diagram that represents the variation of a variable in relation to the variation of other variable What are Tables Tables are lists of numbers orteXt in columns each column having a title or label Every Figure and Table included in the paper MUST be referred to from the text It is generally preferable to make the reference to a Table or Figure ONLY parenthetically in the middle or at the end ofthe sentence thereby reserving your words for the more important task of reporting results The word quotFigurequot is abbreviated as quotFigquot while quotTablequot is not abbreviated Both words are spelled out entirely when labeling legends Each Table and Figure must have an accompanying legend A legend describes the results displayed in the Table or Figure and should also give other pertinent clarifying information key to abbreviations sample size statistical results a brief description of how the data were acquired etc Enough information must be given so that the table or figure can be understood without reading the paper Table legends go above the body of the Table and are left justified Tables are read from the top down Figure legends go below the graph graphs and other types of Figures are usually read from the bottom up


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