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Physics III

by: Madyson Sporer

Physics III PHYS 252

Madyson Sporer

GPA 3.66


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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madyson Sporer on Monday October 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHYS 252 at Christian Brothers University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see /class/219457/phys-252-christian-brothers-university in Physics 2 at Christian Brothers University.


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Date Created: 10/05/15
NUCLEAR DATA SHEET I UNITS OF RADIOACTIVITY Activity Curie Ci 37 x 10m dissec activity of 1 gm of Ra 6 MKS Becquerel Bq 1 dissec 27 pCi Exposure Roentgen R 13 x 10IQCoul created per cc of air at STP MKS no name 1 Coulkg 3876 R Absorbed dose Rad 01 Jkg generally one R of exposure will give one rad MKS Gray Gy 100 rads of absorbed dose Dose equivalent Rem rad RBE where RBE depends on radiation Seivert Sv 100 rems TYPE RBE x ray gamma 1 slow neutron 4 5 proton 10 beta 1 2 fast neutron 10 alpha 10 20 II SOURCES OF RADIATION Background depends on location California minimum 115 mremyear Colorado maximum 250 mremyear due to cosmic rays higher elevation means higher dose rate ground depends on type of rocks and dirt internal from naturally occuring radioactive isotopes such as K m C14 and others there are 260 grams of K or 31 mg of K m in a 75 kg person which gives an activity 0217 Ci 8000 Bq 18 of body weight is carbon or 17x10 M gms of CM in a 75 kg person which gives an activity 078 Ci 2900 BqJ Other sources in addition to background in mrem est x ray 40 1 gastro intestinal track x ray 210 1 NYLA flight at 35000 ft 2 one year living next to nuclear plant 1 living one year in median home 9 pCil 180 mainly due to Rn gas trapped in home Rn levels measured in pCiliter or WL 1 pCil EPA rec max 4 pCil 800 mremyr 1 of all houses have gt 10 pCil 2000 mremyr 005 WL 200 mremyr III ACUTE DOSE EFFECTS dose obtained within a few weeks 20000 mrems measureable transient blood changes 150000 mrems acute radiation sickness 200000 mrems death in some people 350000 mrems death in 50 of people localized not whole body doses for cancer treatment m 10000000 mrems IV RECOMMENDED LIMITS 500 mremsyear for general population 000 mremsyear for special occupations V1 LONG ITEU EFFECTS LINEAR HYPOTHESIS vs HORMESIS HYPOTHESIS Neither has been proven at low doses but recent research supports hormesis for levels several times the normal average background amountJ At the cellular level a dose of 1 mGy of ionizing radiation gives 1 quothitquot on a cell So the background radiation gives about 2 hits per year to each cell A quothitquot on a PHYS 252 Nuclear Data Sheet page 2 cell can cause DNA damage that leads to cancer later in life There are other causes of DNA damage a relatively large amount from normal chemical reactions in metabolism There are four other responses by cells to quothitsquot 1 The body may be stimulated to produce de toxifying agents reducing the damage done by the chemical reactions of metabolism 2 The body may be stimulated to initiate damage repair mechanisms 3 The cells may kill themselves and remove the cancer risk by a process called apoptosis or programmed cell death a regular process that happens when the cell determines that things are not right 4 The body may be stimulated to provide an immune response that entails actively searching for defective cells whether the damage was done by the radiation or by other means linear According to the latest BETR report there is a 79 chance of a latent cancer death for every 10000 mrems of acute dose There is an 1833 chance of contracting cancer for all other causes This is based on the idea that a single hit could cause a cell to become cancerous It does not recognize the four protective responses referred to above hormesis None is a little bad a little is good a lot is a lot bad based on analogy with minerals a little is necessary a lot is toxic and vaccines a less dangerous infection builds up body defenses This does include the above 4 protective responses VI NEUTRON CROSS SECTIONS in barns Ubarn lOiBmQ a fissile materials SLOW Element 1absorption 1 fission 1avg fission absorption 1 fission U233 1 47 1 531 1 2487 1 235 1 98 1 580 1 2423 0 1 13 U238 H 1 28 1 00005 1 20 1 05 80239 1 271 1 742 1 2880 1 Pu241 1 368 1 1007 1 2934 1 NOTE U2 is not a fissile material it is included only for reference b moderator and control rod materials Element 1 absorption 1 scatter 1 ave of c lli 1 n to th rmali H 1 0 1 38 1 18 D 1 00005 1 7 1 25 He 1 00000 1 1 1 42 Li 1 7l 1 14 1 62 Be 1 0010 1 7 1 90 B 1 755 1 4 1 98 0 1 00037 1 48 1 114 N 1 19 1 10 1 132 0 1 00002 1 42 1 150 Cd 1 2450 1 7 1 PHYS 252 Nuclear Data Sheet page 3 VII COMPARATIVE ENERGY FIGURES JOU OUANlllY LES AMOUNT TO POWER 1000 MW PLANT radiation per FOR ONE YEAR 95x10i 1000 MW year 1 gram of U23 8 2 x 10m s 250 person rems 1 barrel of oil 63 x 109 15 million barrels 50 person rems 1 ton of coal 29 x 10m 3 million tons 400 person rems 1 ft3 natural gas 1 1 x 106 86 billion ft3 30 person rems 1 cord of white oak 3 1 x 10m 3 million cords yearly US sunlight 6 x 10 40 square miles yearly US wind 1 x 10m geothermal 200 person rems 1980 US energy consumption all forms m 1x10m Joules m 100 quads 1 x 1015 BTU39s 1 quad NOTES the 36 tons of U includes a factor of l3 due to incomplete use of fuel due to poisoning of rods This much UZE demands 100 tons of enriched uranium which demands about 100000 tons of uranium ore at metal a high but not the highest grade ore 1f reprocessed this much fuel will last roughly 5 times longer due in part to the creation of U23 by reactions inside the reactor 2 The 3 million cords would take 6 million acres of untended forests or 550000 acres of tended forest n a er pound basis all woods contain approximately the same energy Untended hardwood forests generate 05 cords per acre per year thus you would need 6 million acres to supply one power plant Cultivated Southern fores generate 11 times more per acre per year thus you would need about 550000 acres for one power plant 640 acres sq mile so need 860 sq miles The 40 square miles comes from the yearly average of 200 Wattsm2 and assumes a 10 efficiency in converting sunlight into electricity amp 50 spacing for maintenance VIII WASTE PRODUCTS FOR 1000 MW ELECTRIC PLANT PER YEAR nuclear 120 tons year if not reprocessed 5 tons year if reprocessed tailings coal 500000 tonsyear of solid wastes tailings 150000 tonsyear of sulfur dioxide nitrogen oxides equivalent to 200000 automobiles chemical carcinogens released eg arsenic cadmium solar energy to make solar collectors and the frames and all accompanin equipment requires 1000 times the materials of an equivalent coal or nuclear plant


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