Introductory Physics II
Introductory Physics II PHYS 202
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madyson Sporer on Monday October 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHYS 202 at Christian Brothers University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 70 views. For similar materials see /class/219462/phys-202-christian-brothers-university in Physics 2 at Christian Brothers University.
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Date Created: 10/05/15
PHYS 202 OUTLINE FOR PART III LIGHT amp OPTICS Electromagnetic Waves A Electromagnetic waves S2324 1 speed of waves pogo 3 X 108 ms c 2 waves and frequency the spectrum a radio red b microwave amp radar orange c infrared yellow d visible colorslt green e ultraviolet blue f xray and gamma ray violet Supplementary Problems 8 23 Given the wavelength of an electromagnetic wave identify its type eg given a wavelength of 55 X 10397 m the type is visible yellow 24 a What is the speed of light in air b What is the speed of light in water index of refraction ofwater 133 c If red light of wavelength 630 nm in air is used what is the frequency of this light in air On entering the water does the light d change color e change frequency f change wavelength If YES to any of the above three question tell what it changes to Answers to Supplementary Problems 24 a 30x108 msec b 226x108 msec c 476x1014 Hz d No e No f Yes 474 nm Reflection and Refraction of Light A Re ection amp Refraction 825 to 28 1 re ection 6i are 2 refraction Snell39s law n1sine1 n2 sin62 a index of refraction n E cv b total internal re ection ber optics c apparent depth Supplementary Problems 8 25 A ray of light coming from air hits the surface ofa swimming pool The index of refraction of water is 133 remember The angle the ray makes with the SURFACE is 70 a What is the incident angle b What is the refracted angle 26 lfthe critical angle for a certain plastic is 42 what is its index of refraction PHYS 202 Study Guide for Part 3 page 2 27 The velocity of sound is 350 msec in AIR and 1400 msec in WATER a What is the critical angle for a sound wave incident on the surface between air and water b Which medium has the higher quotindex of refractionquot for sound 28 a Can sound in air quotcritically reflectquot from water or can sound in water quotcritically re ectquot from air b Can light in air quotcritically re ectquot from water or can light in water quotcritically re ec quot from air Answers to Supplementary Problems 25 a 200 b 149 26 149 27 a 145 b Air 28 a Sound in air can quotcritically re ectquot b Light in water can quotcritically re ectquot Mirrors and Lenses A Thin Lenses S2930 1 focal length 2 lens makers eq 1f nmat nmednmed 1Rfrom 1Rrear signs in above equation convex lens Rfront gt 0 Rrear gt O concave lens Rfront lt 0 Rrear lt 0 3 thin lens equation 1f 1s 1s39 4 Magni cation M h39h s39s M means rightsideup M means up sidedown 5 aberrations B Applications S313233 1 camera and projector s gt f M lt O inverted real image camera sgtgtf s39gtf M lt 1 projector sgtf s39gtgtf M gt 1 2 magnifying glass s lt f s39 m 25 cm upright virtual image Supplementary Problems S 29 A lens is made from a glass of index of refraction 146 and has radii of curvature of 1 0 cm and 5 cm a What is the focal length ofthis lens b Is this a converging or diverging lens c lfthe radii were changed to 10 cm and 5 cm would the focal length change and if so what would it be d Is this a converging or diverging lens 30 Design a lens that has a focal length of 5 cm 31 A 35 mm camera has a lens of focal length 55 mm a A picture ofa mountain one mile away is to be taken How far away should the film be from the lens b A picture ofa person 5 meters away is to be taken How far away should the lens be from the lm c A closeup picture ofa person 60 cm away is to be taken How far away should the lens be from the film d In part PHYS 202 Study Guide for Part 3 page 3 b if the person is 53911quot 180 m tall how big will his image be on the lm e In part c if the person39s face is 25 cm long how big will the image be on the lm 32 A magnifying glass has a focal length of3 cm a Draw a diagram showing the object lens image and eye Include the focal point of the lens in your diagram b What should the image distance be if it is used properly c What is the magni cation of this lens when used properly 33 A person can see things well only if they are at least 75 cm away the person is farsighted a Draw a diagram showing the eye the lens the object and the image b What focal length glasses should this person wear Answers to Supplementary Problems 29 a 217 cm b Converging c Yes 217 cm d Diverging 30 Many possible answers 31 a 55002 mm b 556 mm c 606 mm d 200 mm e 2525 mm 32 b 25 cm c 933 X 33 b f 375 cm Wave Optics A Interference 834 1 Youngs double slit nmax 7 d sin0max forelt1 rad sine e tane yL 2 diffraction grating same formula as Youngs sharper dots 3 thin films depends on n of all three media a what do you want constructive bright then need 0 or 360 phase difference destructive dim then need 180 phase difference b ifnair lt nmm lt nbase then have no phase difference due to re ection if nair lt nmm gt nbase then have 1800 phase difference due to re ection c now determine what the phase difference due to 2t is if want 3600 phase difference then have 2t Mm Mirnmm if want 1800 phase difference then have 2t Mm 2 Mir2mm B Diffraction same as for sound S3536 1 Slit nmin 7 W sin0min where w is the slit width 2 circular opening 122 nmin 7 D sinvmin where D is the diameter C Polarization 1 by absorption polaroid sunglasses by re ection why polaroid sunglasses are especially useful by double refraction different ni in different directions by scattering ACHN PHYS 202 Study Guide for Part 3 page 4 D Seeing color how the eye operates Supplementary Problems 8 34 Laser light of wavelength 632 nm is directed through a double slit with slit separation of01 mm What is the distance between adjacent maxima on a screen 4 meters away 35 A laser light ofwavelength 633 nm shines through a crack and the resulting diffraction pattern on a screen 2 meters away shows the central maximum to have a width of 12 cm How wide is the crack 36 A low frequency 50 Hz sound wave v 350 ms in air is incident on a door ofwidth one meter a What is the angle for the first minimum as the sound spreads out due to the diffraction effects of the door b What if the frequency is 500 Hz Answers to Supplementary Problems 34 253 cm 35 0211 mm 36 a no minimum b 444 OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS A Cameras S3738 1 fstop fD 2 time amount oflight proportional to time and area D2 3 diffraction effects proportional to 1D 122 7 D sinenmn 4 thin films for minimizing re ection see above B The eye S39 1 focusing 2 acuity C Telescope magnify angle since h39 ltlt h MP ewnhewnhout S40 1 astronomical M fofe L fo fe 2 terrestrial use fo to form image projector use fe as magnifying glass D Microscope magni cation gtgt 1 h39 gtgt h S41 Supplementary Problems 8 37 A 35 mm camera has a 50 mm lens the focal length is 50 mm and the film is 35 mm long and 24 mm wide a What is the diameter ofthe opening to the lens when an fstop of 20 is used b lfa time of 160 second was used correctly with this fstop what time should be used for the same exposure when the fstop is changed to 14 c Which fstop setting would give PHYS 202 Study Guide for Part 3 page 5 the smallest diffraction effects d Which of the two fstop settings would give the best overall focus including foreground and background e lfan object oflength 1 meter is to be photographed and is to exactly t on the long side of the lm how far away should the object be from the camera f How far should the film be from the lens forthis 38 Answer the questions in problem 37 above for the case where a 135 mm lens is used instead of the 50 mm lens 39 What is the minimum angle according to the Rayleigh Criterion that a person with good eyesight can resolve Estimate the diameter of the opening to the eye pupil and use the middle ofthe visible spectrum for the wavelength of the light 40 CBU has an 8 inch telescope with an objective lens of focal length 20 meters a lfa magni cation of 50X is desired what focal length lens should be used as an eyepiece b What is the maximum useful magnification that this telescope can provide c What size focal length eyepiece would give this 41 Design a microscope that gives a magni cation of exactly 275X Answers to Supplementary Problems 37 a 25 mm b 1120 sec c the 14 setting d the 20 setting e 1478 m f 5175 mm 38 a 675 mm b 1120 sec c the 14 setting d the 20 setting e 3992 m f 13972 mm 39 for a pupil diameter of4 mm qnmn m 0096 m 12 arcminute 40 a 40 cm b about 500 X c about a 4 mm lens 41 Many answers possible PHYS 202 OUTLINE FOR PART I ELECTRICITY Electric Forces and Electric Fields A Electric force vector S123 1 four fundamental forces gravity EampM two nuclear 2 Coulomb39s Law F kq1q2r2 similar to F Gm1m2r2 3 protons and electrons charge q and mass m a proton q e 16 X 10190 m 167 X 103927 kg b electron q e 16 x103919c m 911 x 103931 kg 4 insulators and conductors B Electric eld 84 1 de nition E E Fon loqt a vector 2 units NtCoul or Voltmeter see below 3 for point charge magnitude E kqr2 direction points away from q toward q 4 for several charges add as vectors express in POLAR but add in RECTANGULAR Supplementary Problems 8 l 1 At a particular instant a particle of mass mA 5 mg and charge oqu 5 uCoul is located at the origin A second particle of mass m 2 mg and charge oqu 6 uCoul is located at that same instant at a position 5 m 3 m relative to the origin a What is the force on qA due to the presence oqu b Is the magnitude ofthe force on qB due to the presence of qA the same greater or smaller than the magnitude ofthe force on qA due to the presence of qB 0 Assuming the two charges have no other forces on them what is the magnitude of the resulting acceleration of particle A due to the electrical interaction with particle A d Is the acceleration of particle B due to the presence of particle A the same greater or smaller than the magnitude ofthe acceleration of particle A 2 In the hydrogen atom the electron orbits the proton at a distance of5 X 103911 meters a What is the electric force on the electron due to the proton b What is the velocity of the electron in its orbit about the proton HINT1 use EFma and recall for circular motion that av2r 3 a What is the magnitude of the gravitational force between the proton and the electron when they are separated by 1 nm b What is the electrical force between the proton and the electron when they are separated by 1 nm 0 Which force is the stronger d How many signi cant gures would have to be used before the weaker force would alter the net force from being equal to the stronger force EXAMPLE if F11000 Nt and F2001 Nt then FneF1 to 2 significant figures 10 but the third significant figure would be changed 101 instead of 100 4 Consider two charges qA has a charge of5 nCoul and is located at 5 m 3 m qB has a charge of4 nCoul and is located at 7 m 2 m a What is the electric eld at the origin due to qA alone b What is the electric eld at the origin due to BOTH charges PHYS 202 Study Guide for Part 1 page Answers to Supplementary Problems 1 a 794X10393 Nt b same c 1588 ms2 d acceleration of B is larger 2 a 92 x10398 Nt b 22 x106 ms 3 a 101 x 103949 Nt b 23 x 103910 Nt c electrical d 39 4 a E 132 NtCoul at 211 b E 99 NtCoul at 241 Electrical Energy and Capacitance A Electric potential Voltage EMF S567 1 de nition V E PEorqqt a scalar 2 units Volt JouleCoul 3 for point charge V kqr for q for q 4 for several charges add as scalars 5 use in conservation of energy PEeI q V 6 related to field EX AVAX Ey AVAy B Electron beams 88 1 conservation of energy 2 Xray tubes 3 Cathode Ray Tubes CRT TV39s monitors oscilloscopes C Capacitance 89 1 definition C E QV stores charge and hence energy 2 units Farad CoulVolt 3 geometry for parallel plate C KA 4 11 k d K is dielectric constant A is area d is distance k is Coulomb39s constant 4 energy stored Energy 12 Q V 12 C V2 Supplementary Problems 8 5 Consider two charges same as for problem S4 qA has a charge of 5 nCoul and is located at 5 m 3 m qB has a charge of 4 nCoul and is located at 7 m 2 m a What is the electric potential at the origin due to qA alone b What is the electric potential at the origin due to BOTH charges 6 What change in potential energy does a 6 microCoulomb charge experience in moving from a position where the potential is 60 volts to one where it is 35 volts Express your answer in Joules and in eV lfthe charge has a mass of 2 mg and the charge was initially at rest and ifall the potential energy change went into changing the particles kinetic energy how fast would the particle be going when it reached the 35 volt position PHYS 202 Study Guide for Part 1 page 3 7 a Through how many volts will an electron have to be accelerated if it is to reach 1 million mileshr if it starts from rest b Should the electron fall through twice the voltage difference to reach twice the speed c Through how many volts will a proton have to be accelerated if it is to reach 1 million mileshr 8 Be able to describe how a CRT works 9 a If a 2 HF capacitor is charged up with a 12 volt battery how much energy is stored in the capacitor b How much charge is stored on the capacitor Now suppose that half the charge is drained off the capacitor c VWI the voltage also be decreased by a factor of 2 that is 12 if not by what factor is it changed d Will the energy stored also be decreased by a factor of 2 if not by what factor is it changed Answers to Supplementary Problems a 772 volts b 277 volts U1 6 decrease of 1 5x10394 Joules 937X1014eV 1225 msec 274 mph 7 057 volts b no it will need to fall through 4times the voltage difference c 1040 volts 9 a 144 mJ or 144 HJ b 24 C c Yes d No decreased by a factor of 22 or 4 that is by 1A Current and Resistance A Current 1 definition IE AqAt 2 units Ampere Coulsec B Voltage current and resistance S1011 1 Ohm39s Law V l R 2 RESISTANCE R p L A where p is resistivity 3 POWER P IV IZR VZR Watt Volt Amp Supplementary Problems 8 10 A 60 Watt light bulb is designed to work with a 110 volt power supply a What is the current through the light bulb b What is the resistance of the light bulb c Does a 100 Watt light bulb have a lower or higher resistance than the 60 Watt bulb 11 From the Capacitance and Dielectrics part D energy stored in a capacitor is PE 12QV From the Current amp Resistance part C PE QV Explain why there is a 12 in the one but not the other equation Answers to Supplementary Problems 10 a 055 Amps b 200 W c less PHYS 202 Study Guide for Part 1 page PHYS 202 Study Guide for Part 1 page Direct Current Circuits A Resistive circuits 812 1 series Rtotal R1 R2 Z Ri more length harder bigger R 2 parallel 1Rtotal 1 R1 1R2 2 UR more area easier less R Supplementary Problems 8 12 You are given three resistors 2 Q 5 Q and 10 Q a Draw a diagram showing how to connect the resistors so that you get the smallest effective resistance b Is your connection above purely parallel purely series or a combination 0 Draw a second diagram below showing how to connect the resistors so that you get the largest effective resistance d Draw a third diagram below showing how to connect the resistors so that you get some value between 2 Q and 5 Q for the effective resistance and then specify what value you will get
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