Topics in Ecol & Environment
Topics in Ecol & Environment BIOL 115
Christopher Newport University
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jedediah Fahey on Monday October 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 115 at Christopher Newport University taught by Robert Atkinson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see /class/219474/biol-115-christopher-newport-university in Biology at Christopher Newport University.
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Date Created: 10/05/15
October 8 2009 Cang In the Coal Mrnequot Anal an Ve elation Deterrmnlng nfhydmphm vegetan an 15 present Wetland Indicator Status Frequency of occurrence in wetlands obligate wetland species gt99 Faculta ve wetland species 6799 Facu tative species 3466 Facultatlve upIand species 133 obligate upland species lt1 Drsmbubon ofspecles along arnorsmre gradrenc The Concegt of Cov 39 How much othe ground rs shaded by each speaesv each spe cres here rs represented by a color spews A Spams B Speues c Estimate the cover ofeach specres Selecbon ofDormnant Sgecles Th om39 ant species are selected by esbrnabng their coyerre1abyrsrng cover to total 100 and men by applyrng the 5020 nde Relitavising adjusting raw cover so chat r covers 100 o 5020 Rule dominant species are those that when listed in descending order sum to 50 plus any species that have at least 20 cover Basic Rule Hydrophitic Vegetation is present when more than 50 of the dominant species are Fac of wetter excluding Facspecies Or if weighted averaging is used the weighted average must be LESS THAN 30 o if more than 50 of the dominant species are hydrophytes Fac of wetter then it s hydrophitic vegetation Relativising Cover Estimates Problem We want the selection of dominant species to be the same in all plots 7 Scene ONE The 50 20 Rule would nd NO DOMINANT SPECIES in a plot that has a total of 10 cover 7 Scene TWO Conversely in a plot with 500 total cover there could be LOADS of dominant species Solution Relativise Convert cover to total 100 7 Scene ONE Convert by multiplying every species by 7 7 Scene TWO Convert by multiplying every species by 7 7 Now you can fairly apply the 5020 Rule Identify the Dominant Species to the Species T 39 Level What does Rob mean by Taxonomic Levels Kingdom Phylus for animals Division for plants Class Order Family Genus O O O O O O O 0 Species Let s say we nd Soft Rush and it is selected as a dominant species We use a plant kep to nd its scienti c name JuncusE usus Then we go to USDept of Agriculture s Plant Database Plot 1 field data analysis Species Belgrjvege veFlndigorStas 34mm Hydrogh e Soft rush 5 o F et Yes Yes Cattail 25 V Obl Ves Yes Dandelion20 FacUp Yes No 0 Poison lvySA Fac No Yes but Determination 2 of the 3 dominant species 66 are hydrophytes Hydrophytic Vegetation Relative cover adds up to 100 Plot Two 0 Dandelion 60 FacUp Bermuda grass 20 FacUp Soft rush 20 FacWet Determination 1 of the 3 dominant species 33 are hydrophytes NOT hydrophytic vegetation This is Ielativized because it adds up to 100 They re all dominant because of the 5020 rule It is not hydrophitic vegetation because only 1 of these is a hydrophyte Quantifying the indicator status 0 What if we assign numbers to the 5 categories obligate Wetland 1 0 FacultativeWetlandZ Facultative 3 Facultative Upland 4 Upland S Plot one field data Soft rush 50 FacWet 2 Broad leaf cattail 25 Obi 1 Dandelion 20 FacUp 1 Poison Ivy 5 Fe 3 lfwe average the indicator status of the 4 species 2 1 4 and 3 sums to 10 divide by 4 25 OR if you average the dominant species 2143 23 Still how is soft rush being UNDERrepresented How could you fix that What would be fair Weighting examples mr m pli lL L 2 nmnllviilf I Course syllabus for Biol 115 Quiz average weighs 75 Final Exam grade weighs 25 7 Suzie39s grades in Biol 115 quiz average 80 I Final Exam grade 50 e Calculation 80 x 7b50 x 25 6000 1250 7250 now we divide by the 100 that we multiplied by so Suzie gets a 725 a C in Biol 115 Notethat the average of 80 and 50 is 65 a D but the quizzes were weighted higher so Suzie earned a 0 Analyzing Vegetation Determining if Hydrophitic Vegetation is Present Canary in the Coal Mine 7 miners would bring a canary in a coal mine because they are very sensitive to carbon monoxide and methane They canary would die if the levels rose so they knew to get out 5020 Rule After determining what species are present and doing a cover estimate you do the 5020 rule which says that you rank the species in decreasing order Add up the covers until they equal 50 and the species that add to equal 50 are dominant Any species with greater than 20 cover is also dominant Relativising Cover Estimates If you only have 10 cover on a plot the 5020 rule doesn t work If you have another that adds to 500 cover it s not fair to compare them that way In order to compare relativise To Relativise Add covers Divide individual covers by sum of covers Multiply by 100 Basic Rule After you do the 5020 to determine dominant species Now you have to determine if they re hydrophitic If more than 50 are FAC or wetter then they are considered hydrophitic OR you can use a weighted average If it is less than 30 it s hydrophitic vegetation 2 of the dominant species 66 are hydrophytes therefore it s hydrophitic vegetation BASIC RULE If more than 50 of the dominant species are hydrophitic FAC or wetter then it s hydrophitic vegetation Estimating Cover Class Cover class and percent cover range Trace lt1 1 gtl5 covers less than your hand 2 7 525 3 2550 4 5075 5 7595 6 95100 Quantimng the Indicator Status Obligate Wetland l Factultive Wetland 2 Facultive 3 Facultive Upland 4 Upland 5 If the cover doesn t equal 100 you MUST revitalize it Remember If the sum is less than 30 you have hydrophitic vegetation Vegetation along an elevation gradient Water table December 1st 2009 Two More T Eyes of Wetlands ng Herbaceous vegetation dominates not woody vegetation Isolated and get water from surface Marsh life not forested Depression Ferns Isolated and gets water from surface and from soil Depression Bog Chemistry Because water owing into bogs doesn t flow through soil it doesn t accumulate and transport dissolved elements that could buffer avoid changes in pH As a result bogs tend to have acidic pH which lowers decomposition by being toxic to bacteria Low decomposition rates result in low nutrient conditions that favor carnivorous plants like Venus y trap Sundew and Pitcher plant Get their nutrients by regurgitation external digestion Bacteria are killed by pH changes as they cannot adapt to it like other organisms Bogs are very low in nutrients no decomposition or water bringing in nutrients The primary stress in bogs is oxygen and acidity pH Four Ways to f Wetland Mitigation A system that regulates wetland destruction Why does the department of defense protect our wetlands they own a lot of the land Avoid Vinimize Compensate Compensation replacing or providing substitute resources or environments W etlan ds Restorin g Creation Enhancement Preservation Q name a wetland that when impacted becomes diverse A salt marshes atlantic white cedar Administrative Details InKind v outofkind replacing the same kind or not the same kind onsite v offsite replacing on sit or off site ratios mitigation banking municipal and entrepreneurial banks inlieu free writing the government a check October 20 2009 When the 3 parameters are dif cult to apply Problem areas and atypical situations Why are mollisols dif cult to identify DEEP A HORIZONS Red Parent Material Chroma remains high because the crystalline form of iron is not available for bacteria to use as an electron acceptor Sandy Soils Dif cult to identify because they don t have iron in them It s essentially sand and glass The color tells us nothing except the environment in which the sand crystals were formed Newlv Formed or Created Wetlands Why might low chroma take a few years to develop 0 What is required for low chroma to form 0 long periods of saturation 0 Only having hydrology and not organic matter Nothing to decompose means no food for bacteria 0 How might these conditions change over time o biomass may spread 0 production may increase 0 Why might wetlands created by excavation be particularly slow to form indicators of hydric soil 0 taking off the top soil layer A can make a wetland 0 may have low productivity which slows down the development of the wetland
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