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HOEC 99 Nutrition for Health Fall 2008 Teresa Leu RD Chapter 10 Minerals Mining for Nutrients HewlingsMedeiros PowerPoint presentation created by Susan J Hewlings PhD RD NeIiingIlaneinx mi uzmslearxm Emng Mums mm mm 5x mum mi qu mama m A iKIglI m Classifying Minerals Essential components of the diet New and existing dietary minerals are still being researched Classification of minerals Macrominerals Microminerals NeIiingIlaneinx m uzmslearxm Emng Mums mm mm 5x mum mi qu mama m A iKIglI m Macrominerals vs Microminerals Macrominerals Microminerals Require inn mg or more per day Require iess than inn mg perday Calcium lron Pnospnoms Zii ic Sodium Potassium Selenium Chloride iodine Magnesium Fluoride Chromium Manganese Boron Molybdenum Cobalt Vanadium mm mm mm Chap 10 HOEC 99 Nutrition for Health Teresa Leu RD Calcium Bone 7 Synthesis and maintenance 7 Constant turnover 7 Storage place forcalciurn Muscle and nerves Importance of calcium and vitamin D in disease 7 Youth and adolescent intake Criticalperiudlurbuildingbune 7 Prevention or osteoporosis Fall 2008 Osteoporosis To Prevent Osteoporosis Consume two or three servings per day from the milk and dairy group from MyPyramid Spread throughout the day Participate in weightbearing exercise such as strength training walking runnin etc Females should maintain estrogen levels by maintaining a healthy weight Chap 10 no HOEC 99 Nutrition for Health Fall 2008 Teresa Leu RD Bone Basics Bone Turnover or Remodeling Other Uses of Calcium Metabolism Blood cloning Blood pressure Calcium in weight ss Chap 10 I0 HOEC 00 Nutrition for Health Fall 2008 Teresa Leu RD Serum Calcium 39 Calcium absorption To increase calcium Parathyroid hormone absorption PTH Spread intake 39 Certain natural throu hout the da compounds can I inhibit absorption of Presence of lactose in calcium the gulmay also phyyate increase absorption Oxalate Sim wgm WWW 1010 ozrnonam gu xk ggg nb llllultttll m Calcium DRl Adolescents 1300 mgday Adults lt51 yrs old 1000 mgday Adults gt50 yrs old 1200 mgday Food sources Dairy Sardines Greens Spinach Nautiluslipth ill 11 02MB l pannl Btluatm UppprSatnb WWW ll E Milton RealPenpte Rwl nntm e Alllultxllmrupn Phosphorus Food Sources 39 Second most abundant Meay mineral in the body Fish Foundin bones andsolt Poultry tissue Eggs 39 DR3700mglday Milkand milk products 39 Deliciencyisrare 39 Cereals 39 Excess may decrease 39 Legumes blood calcium 39 Grams controversial 39 Tea Maybethat people who 39 come drinkalotolsodadon t 39 Chocolate consume dairy sundrynks Nautiluslipth ill 12 OZmeannl Btluatnl UppprSatnbllupnltl ll E Nultnnlkall enpta wlwntm e Alllultxllpxarupn Chap 10 IA HOEC 99 Nutrition for Health Teresa Leu RD Bone and teeth P F P V A C Enzyme support f7 DNAandRNA Blood buffer p 7 A pea Role of Phosphorus in the Body Fall 2008 Magnesium The macromineral found in the smallest amount in the body Several functions lood uscle relaxation Cofactor Magnesium Deficiency Rare Can occur as a result of Severe diarrhea Vomitin Chap 10 I01 HOEC 99 Nutrition for Health Fall 2008 Teresa Leu RD Magnesium Requirements and Food Sources Alma in mi Men nnmgidav Women aznmgmav Green leafy a a I and breads Chocolate Microminerals Commonly referred to as trace minerals Need lt 100 mgday Equally as important as macrominerals Several diseases and conditions are linked to micromineral de ciencies Iron Prevention of anemia Oxygen delivery The amount ofiron absorbed in a typical diet is quite low Absorption can be in uenced by the body s need Chap 10 I0 HOEC 99 Nutrition for Health Teresa Leu RD Structure of the Heme Molecule Fall 2008 Anemia Normal Hemoglobin Caused by 7 Men is 8717 2 glEIEI 7 F39uurhernuglubin ml ufbluud preuumen 7 n 1217151 7 Decreased REC Hematocrit Mac in mm mm 7 increased bland luss 7 Deficiency Elfern El Normal 40 48 Em Male 5 Anemia iflower than normal Heme Iron vs NonHeme Iron Heme Iron Elemental Iron Found only in meats From plant and animal sh and poultry sources Can cross small Absorption enhanced by intestine wall more vitamin C as well as readily than can non presence ofmeat heme form sh or poultry Chap 10 l HOEC 99 Nutrition for Health Teresa Leu lron Requirements Higher forwomen than for men Male DRI B m ay v Vegetarians multiply DRl byl E need a supplement Pregnancy DRI 27 mglday Prenatalviiamins o en contain DRI Fall 2008 Fish 1 Poultry Shell shes eciallr o l rs Beans Enriched cereal Green leafyvegelables 995 Dried fruit Food Sources of Iron yse lron TOXioity Tum inluu areal quanlilies Smmamsmwan avevlaad Hemaluchrumalusis Abdammaipam swarm mm Wm WWW Lang term can lead in liver damage Smmams allianmxcnx lnleclians Jaimpain Skin Pigmemmmn mm imn depasns Diabetes Bland in We slaal Shack Chap 10 IO HOEC 99 Nutri ion for Health Fall 2008 Teresa Leu RD Zinc Functions of zinc include 2mm dlfferentenzymes F39ruteln syntnEsls grpwtn Alepnplmetapplism and develupment Hemuglubln synthesis Wuund healing F39ruteln digestipn lmmunefunctlun Aritiuxidariterizyme DEVElemEntufsEXual mnetipn urgans and ppne gruWIn Bland pressure regulatan DNArEpllcatlun Gene regulatlun Signs of Zinc Deficiency DWarflsrn in yuung teens panlcularly males Puursexual develupmentunderdevelupedtes LEsln J Abnurmal nair and nails leiss uf Hy guesla prtne inabilitytu taste fund castrpintestinal dlsturbances impaired lipid apseirptiein central nervuus system defects lmpaired fulate and Vitamin A apsprptipn Dwarfism in a Young Boy Suffering from Zinc Deficiency a 4 Chap 10 ltO HOEC 99 Nutrition for Health Fall 2008 Teresa Leu RD Zinc Absorption and DRl 39 Regulated by the small Sources of Zinc intestine 40 ercentofd39eta 39 Meats 39 r zinc sabsorbed ry 39 Eg il m tgrkeym 39 Men have hrgher DRldue Oysters togreatermuscle mass Herring 39 Adult male DRlzll mgday 39 E995 Adult female DRl8 39 Legumes mgday 39 Wholegrain cereals are 39 Tolerable upper intake QOOdSOUWeSOfZlnC level 40 mgday 39 Acofactorforenzymes 39 Immune defense 39 lron use and 39 Synthesis of incorporation into neurotransmitters hemOGIObmandled 39 Energy production via blOOd cells synthesis 39 Antioxidant defense against free radicals 39 Strengthens collagen and therefore connective tissue leulrngslvledevns in 29 ozone Pearson Etueatrnn Upper Saddle River lLl l EX mum teal People halthnrceete Al limits Reserved Copper Absorption and DRl Absorbedinsmallinlestine Goodsourcesofcopper and to a certain extent the include organ meats shell sh stomach mushrooms chocolate nuts Regulated by the same protein legumes the germ and bla as zinc portions of cereals and Usually rnorethanhalfofthe dTi ki vwa erl m per dietarycopperisabsorbed p39pes39 DRl 900 microgramsday Dehciencyrare Tolerable Upper intake Level of copper is 10 mg per day leulrngslvledevns in In ozone Pearson Etueatrnn Upper Saddle River lLl l EX mum teal People halthnrceete Al limits Reserved A 0 Chap 10 HOEC 99 Nutrition for Health Fall 2008 Teresa Leu R Selenium Food Sources le 7 Glulalhlune peyemase Else mum Thymldhmmuna FlsMespeclallyluna AdullDR l 55 mlcvugvamsday Meal Tulevableuppevlnlakelevel gg 4 N E39DE39aM ay Whealrbasedceveals Sunlluwevseeds 0an ll gmvwl in selenlurllrvlm mils lodl me Synthesis ufthyruxlrl Food Sources ludlne deficiency lumen salt 7 Guitar Plants gruvvrl in areas 39 C EWS quot With smlelem lEIdlrlE DRl lsu micrugramsday Tulerable Upperlntake Level l EIEIEI micrugrams per day Iodine Deficiency Leads to a Goiter 39 l39l Chap 10 HOEC 99 Nutrition for Health Teresa Leu RD Fluoride Healthy teeth Hard teeth for resistance to decay Excessive fluoride can lead to fluorosis DRI for women 3 mgday DRI for men 4 mgday Found in fluoridated water and processed foods that use wa er Tolerable Upper Intake Level for adults 8 mgday NulllgxIlene in m mum mm ml was 1 mam mam uwusm Kuu mm 5x A myquot mum Fall 2008 Chromium Glucose uptake Chromium picolinate Doesn t seem to in uence body composition in humans DRI forwomen 25 microgramsday DRI for men 35 microgramsday NulllgxIlene in ms mum mm ml was 1 Food Sources Brewer s yeast Liver Nuts Whole grains Cheese mam mam uwusm Kuu mm 5x A myquot mum Chap 10