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by: George Hilll

HumanBiology BIO9

George Hilll

GPA 3.64


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Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by George Hilll on Monday October 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO9 at City College of San Francisco taught by Lopipero-Langmo in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see /class/219519/bio9-city-college-of-san-francisco in Biology at City College of San Francisco.


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Date Created: 10/05/15
Muscular System Types and functions ofmuscles I Skeletal muscles ofthe body Functluns basl structural hames ah a Mechanism of skeletal muscle contra Energy for muscle contraction d mehs ction Strength and aerobic training Injuries disorders and diseases ofmuscles Overall Function and Common Features of Muscles Produce movement or generate tension Excitable respond to stimuli Chemical and electrical signals Contractile shorten Extensible stretch Elastic return to their original length after being shortened or stretched Types of Muscles Smooth muscle lrlvulurltary museles reuhd lh the Walls er hulluvv lrltErrla Drgans Cardiac muscle lrlvulurltary musclesfuund EIan lhthe heartvvall Skeletal muscle Vuluntarv museles attached in the skeleton Wu lltl Vlls1l palrs 4m may Welght males 32 females Functions of Skeletal Muscle Maintain and establish posture Fed and huld bunestugethervla tErldEIrlS StablllZElDlntS Movemen ElEIrlES faElal EXprESSanS speech ertlrlg eves breathlng Assist the movement ofmaterials in the body Elluud andl rh h Protect internal organs Help maintain constant bodytemperature l l39 39 lllle J letal knew my ma muscles lh the may gtEEIEI ske aliytn Mylde Imzhmzm almuute at mum 5quot Skeletal Muscles Work in Groups or Pairs Most are attached to a bone by a ten Li39 quot on i fmuscle that is attached to the bone r that remains stationary closerto midline 0 ho mmquot hn mmds 7r lnse I n oth rend that isa ached to the bone that quot39quotf quot n I I H l 7 laxmmquot Synergistic muscles muscle groups that work together to create same movement F39rlrne rnuveri u s st at Wurk Antagonistic muscles muscle groups that oppose each other Emmaquot Nam39ng Skeletal Muscles Anatomy of a Skeletal Muscle 39lze c uteus maxlmusimakes up the buttocks and ls mum NM the largest muscle 7n mm rjquot quotquot Shape Deltoldishapedllkeatrlarlgle trapezlousllkea i 39 quotquot tra ezold W Locatlorl Frontallsioverlles the frontalborle bdornlrllsirectus means stralght mm mums l nu I Direction Rectus a Stralght urlungltuulnal muscle at the I Attachment Sterl locleldomastoldiattached t0 the abuumen le cells are lungerthan rnust Either human cells ternurn Numbe ofattachrnerlts orheads Bleeps brachll has 2 attachments or onglns nuquot Actlon Extensor ngers l rhth 30cm Anatomy of a Skeletal Muscle Cell or Fiber Sarcolemma plasma membrane that forms I ubules Sa coplasm cytoplasm that contains organelles including myo br39 s Gly Hg and myuglubln blndsuxygen Sarcoplasmic reticulum smooth ER ofmuscle cell that stores calcium Myo brils a bundle ofmyo laments that contracts I Sarcomere contractile unit ofthe I ri Myo laments actin and myosin lament s s trumure and functan accuuntfurrnuscle untractluns n l E Myofibri s and the Sarcomere Sarcomereicontractile unit of muscle cell Hundreds ofthousands per muscle ell mam quota I When muscle bers are W W Wquot sarcomeres to shorten Elements of 7 Muscle Contraction 1 Skeletal muscle cell must be activated by a nerve i wil no contract on its own 2 Nerve activation increases the concentration of calcium in the vicinity ofthe contractile proteins while its absence prevents contr ct on 4 When a muscle cell is no longer stimulated by a nerve contraction ends 5 Energy provided by ATP is also required for contraction to take place Motor Nerves Activate Skeletal Muscle Sliding Filament Theory of J Muscle Contraction Rigor Mortis Body becomes stiff during the time period from about 4 hours to several days after death Calcium ions leak out of sarcoplasm39c reticulum and muscle cells continue to produce ATP through fermentation causing them to W P runs out some myosin heads are still attached and cannot unattach Stiffness decreases as muscle cells degenerate Body temperature and rigormortis helps to estimate the time of death Acquiring ATP 7 for Muscle Contraction Energy Sources for Muscle Contraction Muscle Activity and Force of Contraction Whether muscles mo Isometric static versus isotonic movement contractions Degree of nerve activation Type ofmuscle ber Fast versus slow twitch Level of tness Muscle mass and aerobic capacity Degree of Nerve Activation Influences Force mcitcirneurcin and allthe muscle cells it stimulates are called a motor unit The muscle cells er a mini unit are spread iniciugnciui ine muscle iesuliing in even wtlule muscle cuniiaciicin nus cm a REEYUl men 7 lncrease inine numpei Ulrnutul uniissiimuiaieu The neguencyuisiimulatiun urinuiyiuualmciiciiuniis Motor Neuron and the Muscle Cells lt Stimulates Slow vs Fast Twitch Muscle Fibers SlOWVIWlICHc red muscle Deslgnedfur ndu Dellver prolonged rance strcing ccintracticins Stead y supply at energy Wth mitecnenuna blend vessels anu uxygen pinging tmyegle in 7 white muscle centract rapidly and powerfully butvvlth less endurance Stere large amounts at glycogen and rely cm creatine pnespnate and anaerublc metabullsrn tcir quick bursts cit energy of slow versus fast thtcn flbel s varles from muscle to Fast vs Slow Twitch Fibers Fast vs Slow Twitch Fibers Inn I SIDWI YFEI go M51 IYPtlla E rnsvlwm g V Eco E 340 E r z 10 a Person WorlxiA Awardng I wx ugb Middle Wolld Lxlmmu wllh lass mum Auiw Dismica Chm nduvme Spinal Splinter Potato PIer Runner Mammun Allllutu Injury Run mm H I m was I LK BRIAN LL 1 ohm Us npposirtpagc has a Iarzcv I I I n mdumm mum docs Fm llx lm commm 10 mm mm than an ry pc 1 hhcr Ind lypc quot1 lies somcwhm In btrwccrL STRENGTH Involves exercises that strengthen speci c muscles eg weight training Builds more myofibrils and increases glycogen storage in fast twitch bers Results in an increase in size of muscle cells but not number of cells Strength vs Aerobic Training AEROBIC Involves activities that increase 02 inta e Builds endurance Number of blood capillaries myoglobin and mitochondria Increase No increase in muscle mass Improves performance of CV and respiratory systems Ex Jogging walking biking swnmm ng Physical Activity and Public Health Updated Recommendation for Adults from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Hearth Association WM I mama KE BI SN many mm a wt llammmmm quotMm Emim 3LG any pm my aguiuniulnailyuutmLaAmlylav My Lmklllx clot nmmrcaua Eka39y u s 3qu mm mum an m mm was lashg I m amnme mm mumulnr mm ran mmr m a m mm m re Wm H ummr I II mm In mum m Barnum W m Increases muscle strength endurance and flexibility Increases cardie Iespiratory endurance e Bene ts of Exercise HDL increases thus improving cardiovascular health Proportion of protein to fat increases favorably May prevent certain cancers Colon breast cervical uterine and ovarian Improve density of bones thus decreasing the likelihood of osteoporosis Enhances mood and may relieve depression Metabolic Effects of Interventions to Increase 39 in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes c vsm n MENDR LEM 31m SA a Nielsen in raw ammo L521 w me Ell memgnywmsmagnumer m m ceiLs W rims Since lhe more mm AMCMS to red are rwml mummy m umucells issuzu days mi NbAl hetesrrelatna mum we NbAlc val m mm a mmsumurem um analysis bolus 5mm amrelo mm litlcvatecbetou 7 wow rm viter r M Si mm a amamm acme marl magic llul auxiliaer uncrer L r h Hm Muscle Stiffness and Soreness Dueto microscopic tears in myo brilsthroughout the muscle In absence of use some sarcomeres become like old stiff rubber bands are d m Damaged sarcomeres disintegrate and are removed as part of repair process and eventually rep aced Chemicals released cause the feeling of soreness Once muscles are accustomed to a particular exercise damage no longer occurs Reco mendations undertake any new exercise activity in moderation for the rst few days Stretch passively to point where laments no longer overlap and Y Always Stretch Before and After Exercising Before exercise Stretching increases heart rate gradually and reduces risk of sprains and pulled muscles Regular stretching improvesjoint stability and range of motion Spasms and Injuries Spasmscramps sudden and involuntary muscle contractions that are usually painful Cramps after heavy exercise may be caused b dehydration combined with an imbalance ofpotassium Strain pull ortear an injury that causes overstretching of a muscle or its tendon Sprain twisting of a joint leading to swelling and injury to muscles ligaments tendons blood vessels and nerves Tendonitis inflamed tendon Tennis elbow Diseases and Disorders Myalgia achy muscles Influenza or otherviral illnesses Duchenne muscular dystrophy hereditary disease of muscle Progressive degeneration and weakening Death usually by age 30 due Tetanus bacterial toxin causes over stimulation of nerves controlling muscle activity lf untreated can cause death Anabolic Steroids A roup of steroids related to testosterone hat usually increase protein production and bulk up muscles Side effects are many and include Liver disease and cancer heart attacks and strokes acne oily hair and skin Males enlarged breasts smaller testicles impotence reduced sperm production baldness Women smaller breasts deeper voice thinning scalp hair thicker body hair May lead to increased aggressiveness and violent mood swings Caused premature death in mice Are they worth the risk Should they be legal to use in athletics How the Skeletal and Muscular Systems Interact W39 h Other Body Systems Bulk these bers up Maybe you can governor some day


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