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by: George Hilll

HumanBiology BIO9

George Hilll

GPA 3.64


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Class Notes
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This 1 page Class Notes was uploaded by George Hilll on Monday October 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO9 at City College of San Francisco taught by ChantillyMunson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see /class/219520/bio9-city-college-of-san-francisco in Biology at City College of San Francisco.


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Date Created: 10/05/15
Summary amp Objectives Chapter 1414a The Respiratory System amp Smoking amp Disease Summary A The respiratory system provides the structures and means for transport and exchange of oxygen and carbondioxide across membranes We need oxygen to stay alive and make enough ATP B There are four processes breathingventilating external respiration gas transport and internal respiration C The nose filters cleanses and conditions air Also allows for sense of smell chemoreceptors amp mucus Air travels through the pharynx epiglottis larynx trachea bronchi bronchioles to the alveoli Alveoli are thinwalled chambers where external respiration occurs They are covered with surfactant respiratory distress syndrome The main muscles involved with breathing are the diaphragm intercostals and abdominals Normal breathing involves changing the pressure in the chest cavity through active inhalation decrease in pressure airflows in and passive exhalation increase in pressure air flows out H The volume of each normal breath is called the tidal volume The biggest breath you can take is called the vital capacity Even after the biggest exhale you can push out there is always some air in the lungs otherwise they d be collapsed residual volume I By simple diffusion oxygen and carbon dioxide move across the membranes of the alveoli and capillaries in the lungs and also across the capillaries in tissues J Oxygen is carried by hemoglobin in the red blood cells K Carbon dioxide is transported dissolved in plasma carried by hemoglobin or as bicarbonate L Breathing is controlled by chemoreceptors in the brain medulla oblongata The chemoreceptors in the brain and arteries primarily detect carbon dioxide M C 394 quotquot quotquot quot 39 39 r39 39 pollution all affect the structure and function of the respiratory system There are many myths associated with advice for treating the common cold N Smoking cigarettes causes cancer heart disease and many other health problems H10 07 Objectives 1 Describe and identify the structures in order through which air flows into and out of lungs during ventilation mouthnose pharynx larynx trachea bronchi bronchioles alveoli and their functions Describe how the movement of the diaphragm during a normal inhalation and exhalation causes pressure changes and air to flow into and out of the lungs 3 Discuss the relationship between breathing the two branches of the autonomic nervous system carbon dioxide and the physiology behind breathing in yoga practice or deepbreathing Describe how simple diffusion is important for internal and external respiration Describe how oxygen and carbon dioxide are carried through the blood Relate the acidbase balance of your body to levels of carbon dioxidecarbonic acid Compare the size and importance of tidal volume with the vital capacity and residual volumes and how these volumes can be affected in individuals with respiratory disease Describe how respiratory structures are affected during colds flu bronchitis emphysema pneumonia and tuberculosis and how pollution can affect respiratory function 911 9 Summarize the health consequences that arise from smoking and the benefits of quitting smoking 3 N535 9 Key terms breathingventilation external respiration gas transport internal respiration pharynx larynx epiglottis trachea bronchi bronchioles alveolus surfactant diaphragm intercostals tidal volume residual volume vital capacity oxyhemoglobin carbaminogemoglobin bicarbonate ions tuberculosis pneumonia bronchitis emphysema nicotine Updated Spring 2009


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