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by: George Hilll

HumanBiology BIO9

George Hilll

GPA 3.64


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Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by George Hilll on Monday October 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO9 at City College of San Francisco taught by ChantillyMunson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see /class/219520/bio9-city-college-of-san-francisco in Biology at City College of San Francisco.


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Date Created: 10/05/15
Summary amp Objectives Chapter 20 The Principles of Inheritance Summary A During meiosis there is independent assortment genetics is random B Every person has two alleles of each gene Alleles can be dominant or recessive and a person can be homozygous or heterozygous C Gregor Mendel was the first individual to describe principles of genetics D Punnett Squares are a way of representing possible gametes and the potential offspring they produce They are a VERY useful tool for analyzing genetic problems E Know how to set up and analyze Punnett squares for the following crosses Aa X Aa AA X Aa AA X aa etc F Some traits andor diseases are caused by one gene G The inheritance pattern of a trait or disease can be determined by analyzing pedigrees and determining which individual isare carriers of traits H Some traits have more than two alleles these alleles can be incompletely dominant or codominant blood types I Most traits and diseases depend on the interaction of many genes polygenic inheritance and the environment J Sex is determined by the sex chromosomes XX or XY and there is AWLAYS a 50 chance of a baby being male or female K Some traits are sexlinked genes and affect males more that females L Amniocentesis and chorionic villi sampling are two forms of genetic testing used to examine the genotype of a fetus prior to birth Genetic testing may also provide information for determining someone s risk for disease after birth for forensic analysis and paternity testing Genetic testing is controversial Objectives 1 Define amp differentiate between gene amp allele homozygous amp heterozygous dominant amp recessive and genotype amp phenotype 2 Associate independent assortment of chromosomes during meiosis with independent or linked assortment of alleles in gametes 3 Setup complete and interpret Punnett squares for onetrait and twotrait crosses such as AA X Aa Aa X Aa AaX aa AABB X aabb AaBb X AaBb 4 Interpret data from a pedigree and be able to identify carriers of recessive traits 5 Describe a few diseases or traits controlled by one recessive gene 6 Summarize how codominance plays a role in the genetics of the ABO blood type 7 Describe the relationship between multiple alleles and the environment in polygenic inheritance and human traitsdiseases 8 Describe how genetic linkage influences inheritance of sexlinked traits such as color blindness 9 Discuss techniques used in genetic testing and the potential positive and negative social impacts of genetic testing Key terms gene trait allele homozygous heterozygous dominant reoessive genotype phenotype pedigree carrier incomplete dominance multiple alleles polygenic inheritance codominance Xlinked genes amniocentesis chorionic villi sampling Updated Spring 2009 Summary amp Objectives Chapter 16 The Urinary System Summary A The urinary system is one of many organs that eliminate waste and consists of two kidneys two ureters one urinary bladder and one urethra It is a filtration system that regulates fluid balance acidbase balance and rids the body of waste andor excess through filtration of dissolved substances The kidneys also produce hormones to regulate fluid balance and red blood cell production and play a role in Vitamin D production The kidneys receive a lot of blood from the renal arteries These arteries branch into smaller and smaller vessels until they become the glomerular capillaries The glomerular capillaries are where the filtration process actually occurs E There are three steps of the filtration process that occur in the nephron glomerular filtration tubular reabsportion tubular secretion F Small molecules can enter the nephron through filtration but big molecules and cells cannot As the filtrate moves through the nephron it gets modified by reabsportion This reabsportion depends on concentration gradients Tubular secretion adds additional or excess items to the filtrate The end product is urine G Three hormones aid in regulation of fluid balance aldosterone antidiuretic hormone and atrial natriuretic peptide H Kidney failure causes a build up of waste in the body This waste can artificially be removed through hemodialysis Urine is stored in the urinary bladder until urination which is both voluntary and involuntary Urinary incontinence can be caused by age young children do not have control over their voluntary sphincter or prostate surgery overactive bladder infection or giving birth J Urinary tract infections are caused by microorganisms entering the urinary system This is thought to be more common in females than males because of the different urethra lengths K A urinalysis is a noninvasive way for physicians to assess many aspects of health It is commonly used in detecting and monitoring diabetes capo Objectives Describe the major anatomical structures in kidneys and their functions List the different systems involved in waste elimination and how they are connected Describe blood flow to and the structure of the glomerulus and nephron Describe the major events of glomerular filtration tubular reabsorption and tubular secretion List normal and abnormal constituents of urine Describe the action of aldosterone and antidiuretic hormone on the nephron and how these hormones contribute to fluid balance Describe what happens if they kidneys don t work properly and treatment options for kidney failure Explain why urinalysis is an important noninvasive diagnostic tool for the medical community P SnPSJ N 9 Highlighted Book Terms Urinary system kidney urine ureter urethra renal cortex renal medulla renal pelvis nephron renal corpuscle glomerulus glomerular capsule renal tubule proximal convoluted tubule loop of the nephron distal convoluted tubule collecting duct glomerular filtration tubular reabsorption tubular secretion antidiuretic hormone diuretic 39 39 39 quot 39 39 equot 39 quot 39 quot 39 39 urination urinary tract infection UTI Updated Spring 2009 Summary amp Objectives Chapter 12 The Circulatory System Summary A The cardiovascular CV system is made of the heart that pumps blood and the vessels that carry blood I 039quot I39l39 0003 X 02 to all parts of your body The CV system maintains blood flow to all cells in the body The vessels include arteries arterioles capillaries venules and veins Arteries are thick and elastic and carry blood away from the heart Veins are thinner than arteries larger in diameter than arteries contain valves and carry blood toward the heart Capillaries are very thin and are the location of material exchan e g Blood flow amp pressure is controlled by changing the diameter of vessels usually arterioles and venules through the action of smooth muscle Vessel walls can weaken leading to an aneurism or varicose veins The heart is made of three main layers and four chambers Each chamber is separated from the next region by a valve The noises the heart makes lubdub are caused by the opening and closing of valves The systemic circuit moves blood through the body The pulmonary circuit moves blood through the lungs Blood can only flow in one direction through these circuits The coronary circulation serves the heart If it is blocked part of the heart does not receive blood flow and may die This is called a heart attack or myocardial infarction Signs of a heart attack include but are not limited to pain in the chest or stomach shortness of breath and a cold sweat Treatment or prevention of a heart attack includes lifestyle diet angioplasty and coronary bypass surgery The electrical system of the heart is called the cardiac conduction system and maintains the beating of your heart without nerves Heart rate is controlled by nervous input Artificial pacemakers send electrical signals for the heart to contract and defibrillators reset this electrical system An electrocardiogram measures the electrical output of your heart The lymphatic system carries excess fluid from the tissues through lymphatic vessels and back into the blood circulation Objectives PPM 0391 8 9 Describe in order the structures that blood moves through as it flows through circuits Compare and contrast the structure and function of arteries veins arterioles venules and capillaries Describe the membrane transport and filtration that occurs across capillary walls Define blood pressure how to measure it what is normal how it changes based on position and activity what is hypertension and why hypertension needs to be treated Identify the major structures of the heart their functions and the order that blood flows through them Compare and contrast the systemic pulmonary and coronary circuits Describe how the electrical system of the heart causes the heart to contract and controls the rate of contraction Link HDL LDL and cholesterol with arthrosclerosis and heart and vessel health Describe the symptoms of a heart attack myocardial infraction and ways to prevent andor treat a heart attack 10 Link the blood vessels and circulation with the lymphatic system Key Terms artery vein arteriole venule capillary atria ventricle AV valve semilunar valve coronary circulation systemic circulation pulmonary circulation angioplasty coronary bypass myocardial infarction diastole systole fibrillation electrocardiogram bradychardia tachycardia hypertension HDL LDL hypercholesterolemia sphygmomanometer stethoscope fibrillation AED Updated Spring 2009


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