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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shanelle Smith on Monday October 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MUHI 100 14 at Ball State University taught by Burkart in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Music in Music at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 10/05/15
Baroque 16001750 Strong Contrast and Strong emotion hints of mortality skulls Symbolism Light and darkgood and evil Seasons winter death springrebirth Skull inevitability of death Hourglass or timepiece fleeting nature of life Five senses touch smell hearing seeing and touch lnven ons Philosophical and scientific discoveries scientific method emphasis on empirical hands on science Galileo used telescope to prove sun center theory modern physics Isaac Newton gravity and other discoveries Kepler Planetary motion Baroque Music Ethos to move the emotions Contrast dynamics movements large small loudsoft Basso Continuo basic foundation for all Baroque music Consisting of a keyboard instrument harpsichord or organ and a bass instrument bass viola da gamba bassoon or cello Violen Family 4 string Violen Viola Cello Bass Baroque Tonality Octave lnterval of 8 notes with the same letter name contains 12 half steps Chromatic scaleall 12 notes Diatonic Scale patterns of 7 half and whole steps major scale see pg 109 minor scale lowered 3rd degree of the scale flatlowers the note a half step b sharp raises the not a half step Key a group of related tones that revolve around the central tone called the tonic Dominant tonic harmonic movement Dominant 5th degree of the scaleseeks to resolve to the tonic Sonata solo instrument and basso continuo 3 performers or trio sonata two solo instruments and basso 4 performers Concerto contrast of solo performer and orchestra Concerta grosso contrast of a group of solo instruments and orchestra Cantata 58 movements JS Bach wrote sacred cantatas based on lutheran hymns called chorales Oratorio Barque Opera Opera Seria Mythology Hero and nobility Opera Large scale drama sung and acted throughout secular performed in opera houses Florentine Camerata Monody solo voice with a little accompaniment led to the birth of Opera Began in Italy with Humanists Florentine Camerata Wanted to move the emotions Monody solo song with instrumental accompaniment Components of Opera Recitative spokensung Action Piece Aria emotional Piece Ensemble chorus Text Libretto First three operas about Orpheus Euridice Henry Purcell English Baroque composer composed both secular and sacred masques popular at english court King Arthur One Opera Dido and Aeneas Dido and Aeneas Based on Virgils Aeneid Aeneas has survived the trojan War He takes his men and sails to Italy to found Rome Encounters a big storm and is thrown off course to Carthage in Africa meets and falls in love with Dido The queen of Carthage Bourque Vocal Genre 1 Opera 2 Cantata 1 58 Movements 1 Recitatives 2 Areias 3 Chorale 1 JS Sacred 1 Lutheran church 2 Choralehymn 3 17 century German 2 Philip Nicolai Wachet auf wake the wake Johann Sebastian Bach 16851750 At age 10 became an orphan both parents died in a short time Went to live with his brother Got an education at the Lutheran Church Music and the bible Choir kid Learned how to build and judge organs Know for this 3 main jobs Weimar organist work organ pieces Cothen Court wrote many instrumental works led the orchestra Leipzig 17231750 hired by by city to be in charge of 4 church St Thomas Church wrote about 200 cantatas Married twice and had 18 children Not all survived CPE Bach oldest son worked for the king WF Bach worked at a court JC Bach Known as the London Bach Wrote Sacred Cantata Wrote secular sonatas concertos and keyboard works Quiz VVednesday On urue Cantata Components Recitative Aria Chorus George Frederic Handel 16851759 Born In Germany Went to Italy to study Opera Back to Germany work for the hanover family Went to England and work for George I II and Ill Worked for Opera Company Royal Academy lt ended 1720 Wrote Oratorio Voca Genre Sacred biblical Messiah first presentation 1742 in Dublin Taken from the Bible OT Isaiah Daniel NT Gospels Revelation Libretto written my Rev Jennens Components Recitative Aria Chorus more than in an Opera Not acted Out No Costumes The Three Sections of Oratorio Prophecy Birth of Christ Passion and Resurrection Redemption Overture Beginning of the part the first French overture Two sections Slow introduction often repeated with dotted rhythms Allegro section in imitative style Rejoice Greatly Da Capo Aria ABA form The A section is repeated with changes A Rejoice Greatly B He is the righteous Savior A Rejoice Greatly The singer adds ornaments and vocal runs to make this section different Ritornello gt In orchestra Baroque Instrumental Genres 1 Suite 1 Instrumental genre composed of many movementsat least four movements 1 Allemande 2 Courante 3 Sarabande 4 Gigue 2 based on dances 1 either Binary or Ternary Form 1 Binary AABB 2 Ternary ABA 3 usually all in the same key 4 Orchestral Suite Same concept but with the orchestra 1 Bach wrote 4 orchestral Suites 2 Handel Water Music amp Royal Fireworks Music 1 Water Music 1717 1 Alla Hornpipe 2 Rustic Dance 3 ABA Ternary Form 1 A Trumpets and Horn 2 Strings Only 3 Return of the First section 2 Concerto 1 3 Movements 1 Fast 2 Slow 3 Fast 2 Contrast Huge 1 Tempos 2 Solo vs Orch 3 Antonio Vivaldi 1 Venice Italy 2 Wrote 500 concertos 1 The Four Seasons 1 Programmatic sonnet poem 1 Ritornello orchestra 2 Solo Violin symbolism of birds 3 Ritornello 4 Orchestra Breezes 5 Ritornello 6 Low Strings Thunder Minor Tonality 7 High strings Lighting Minor Tonality 8 Solo Minor 9 Ritornello in minor 10 Solo 11 Ritornello 12 Solomajor 13 Ritornello Major 2 Spring Summer Fall Winter lt Symbolism used a lot 3 Played Violin 4 Known as red priest 1 Had bright red hair 2 Priest 5 Worked in a Ospedale which was a music conservatory 1 name Pieta 2 boarding school for girls Sonata Fugue Exposition all four voices are introduced Subject the theme Episode when no theme is heard The piece will state the subject in each voice one after the other Sections of episode are alternated with the subject 1 2 3 4 Classical Era Cultural 17501820 Classical Era Characteristics Balance symmetry Order Classical Era Age of Reason and The Age of Enlightenment Rational Thinking Pursuit of Truth Social Justice Equality Thoughts at this time led to emancipation of slaves in England and America Religious Tolerance Freedom of Speech Classical Era Events American Revolution French Revolution Classical Era Innovations in Music Public Concerts Middle Class could attend with price of a ticket Began In England Fortepiano Piano replacing harpsichord Comic Opera Opera buffa New Genres Symphony String Quartet Still being composed today Classical vs Baroque Balanced symmetrical phrases Classical Era Music No longer liked the solid bass line basso Continuo played by two instruments Alberti bass the bass notes are not all played at the same time but are divided for a lighter sound The Development of Musical ldeas Theme Melodies that are the building blacks of a composition Thematic development the expansion of a theme achieved by varying its melodic outline rhythm or harmony Necessary for longer works Motive short melodic or rhythmic ideas Classical Era Forms Multimovement cycle In the classical era form is very important in organizing compositions Composers and listeners understood form and expected certain movements to have certain forms Sonata Allegro Form Optional introduction Exposition 1st theme in tonic Transition to dominant 2nd theme in dominant Closing theme in dominant Development Fantasy section Themes are developed in any key Built up tension Recapitulation All themes are brought back in the tonic Optional Coda Ternary Form Three part Form ABA MinuetTrioMinuet Mozart A little night Music 3rd movement A martial punchy style 8 lyrical smooth style A martial punchy style