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Introduction to Biology II

by: Dylan Pfeffer MD

Introduction to Biology II BIOL 1112

Marketplace > Clayton State University > Biology > BIOL 1112 > Introduction to Biology II
Dylan Pfeffer MD
Clayton State
GPA 3.76


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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dylan Pfeffer MD on Monday October 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1112 at Clayton State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see /class/219561/biol-1112-clayton-state-university in Biology at Clayton State University.

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Date Created: 10/05/15
Comparing Vertebrate Systems Functions of the Digestive System Ingest Food Digest Food Absorption of food by cells Eliminates undigested material from the body Digestion Si Teeth Structure among Vertebrates Chondricthyes lVentral mouth 2Crushing jaws 3 Carnivores Osteichthyes 1M0uth can be in any position 20mnivores herbivores or carnivores Amphibians frogs toads salamanders lComplete digestive system 2sticky tongue to catch prey 3vomerine teeth 2 teeth on the roof of their mouth used to hold prey 4Diet carnivores Reptiles 1Have teeth amp complete digestive system 2Snakes eat food whole jaws unhinge Birds lNo large intestinelightens weight for ight or smaller large intestine 2have no teeth the crop moistens the food while the gizzard grinds the food 33Waste isn t stored leaves the body immediately cloacal Birds Claws amp beaks determine what kind of food they will eat Mammals 1Complete digestive system 2 Tee a Herbivores at molars to grind plans b Omnivores eat both Carnivores sharp teeth canines to tear esh wolsta suq mammal lucgeme Cauluse The Digestive Systems of Vertebrates Herbivores have a longer digestive tract than CarCarnicharnivores Why Work in a small group to write a paragraph in your notes on how they are different amp how they are alike Excretory System aka Urinary System lCollect watersalts amp nutrients 2 Filters body uids a Remove amp concentrate waste products from body uids amp blood b return other substances to the body homeostasis 3 Eliminate excretory products from the body Fish Most shes rid themselves of nitrogenous wastes in the form of ammonia 1gills 392 kidneys Amphibians Amphibians 7 a kidneys lter blood b7urinei travels through ureters into the cloaca Reptiles Urine is produced in the kidneys ammonia or uric acid quotExcess water is conserved in cloaca uric acid in the form Of crystals Birds Are similar to those of some reptiles Nitrogenous wastes are removed from the blood by kidneys converted to uric acid and deposited in the cloaca Most ofthe water is reabsorbed leaving uric acid crystals in a white pasty form that you may recognize as bird droppings Mammals The kidneys of mammals help maintain homeostasis by ltering urea from the blood and by excreting or retaining excess liquid Allow mammals to live in many habitats Mammals Nervous System Bram 3 Main Parts 451 Cerebru argesl poru39ou ofbrain 1 consuo s thought A Cerebeuum e underside onhe brain rt rate Vertebrate Brains cerebrum cerebellum cerebrum lr cerebellum y Elam stem l 39 Brain stem W Ru cerebrum cerebellum Emir stem cerebellum Brain stem Have lobed brains bulging eyes clear 3rd eyelid nictitating membrane No external ears most have tympanum which acts as eardrum Have vocal cords in throat Reptiles o Keen sense of smell Tongues ospecial organs in mouth called Jacobson s organs which transmit signals to brain Birds oGood eyesight have color sensitive cells in eyes CONES oexcellent night vision RODS oKeen sense of hearing Mammals oMost intelligent are primates oRelatively large brain for body size oVariety of senses Comparing vertebrate brains What evolutionary changes do you see Circulatory System carry nutrients amp oxygen to the body ca carbon di ide and other wastes awa from the cells ngomparrng lXertebrate y comcblgsalzaa m E2ais lsamp e s3dpole has W M a sh Amplgb39ansTadpoles mm a ychezllllbeerraet rl iean Tadpole has gills like a shAdults ave 3 chambered heart 2 atria l ventricle H C9mparmg V t i lgseUsually have a 3 chambered heart 2 atria 1 ventricle Clrcummry WSW large reptiles have a 4 chambered heart crocodilesBirds and Mammals 4 chambered heart 2 atria 2 ventricles quotOxygenated blood is completely separated from deoxygenated blood 7 allows more oxygen amp energy for muscles and tissues quotAlso more ef cient system helps maintain body temperature endothermic quotPath of Blood Flow Ventricles totally separated by septum SingleLoop Circaa vwgr lrculatory System yquot 1 Ventricle we L 1 Atrium iv 1 Ventricla with 2 Ventricles l partial division X completely divided amp i R h Body capinaries Body capillaries Body caplllanss quot7 39 7 I 1 Amphibians Sexual external mn up 4 Sexual internal reproduction oviparous In whmmmmmmaid deoxygenated blood mixed within the heart Internal sexual reproduction viviparous except monotreme 3Few young due to extended parental care In whrmw m ygemckyg a gm ed blood kept separate Development in uterus Comparing vertebrate respiratory systemsAFish Gills B Amphibians Tadpoles use gills Adults use thin moist skin more ef cient amp lungs Nostrils on top of head C Reptiles Use lungs DBirds Lungs and air sacs E Mammals Diaphragm muscle under lungs separates chest cavity from abdominal cavity helps chest cavity expand to take in more air Vertebrate L 4 39 IDII Birds scaly skin on feet most have claws on toes Feathers modified scales a Contour feathers line body b Down feathers insulate reening waterproof feathers by plucking old feathers smooth them stimulates oil gland


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