Human Anatomy and Physiology I
Human Anatomy and Physiology I BIOL 1151
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Date Created: 10/05/15
Chapter 7 The Skeletal SystemThe Axial Skeleton Ob39ectives Division of the skeletal system Classi cation of bones Surface markings and their functions Cranial and facial bones Sutures paranasal sinuses and fontanels Relationship of hyoid bone to the skull Vertebral column regions normal curves structural and functional features Bones of the thorax The Skeletal SystemThe Axial Skeleton Axial Skeleton 8O bones lie along longitudinal axis skull hyoid vertebrae ribs sternum ear ossicles Appendicular Skeleton 126 bones upper amp lower limbs and pelvic amp pectoral girdles Types of Bones 5 basic types of bones 7 long compact 7 short spongy except surface 7 flat plates of compact enclosing spongy 7 irregular variable 7 sesamoid develop in tendons or ligaments patella Sutural bones in joint between skull bones Bone Surface Markings Surface features rough area groove openings process Speci c functions 7 passageway for blood vessels and nerves 7 joint formation 7 muscle attachment amp contraction Bone Surface Markings from Table 72 Foramen opening Fossa shallow depression Sulcus groove Meatus tubelike passageway or canal Condyle large round protuberance Facet smooth flat articular surface Trochanter very large projection Tuberosity large rounded roughened projection Learning the terms found in this Table will simplify your study ofthe skeleton The Skull 8 Cranial bones 7 protect brain amp house ear ossicles 7 muscle attachment forjaw neck amp facial muscles 14 Facial bones 7 protect delicate sense organs smell taste vision 7 support entrances to digestive and respiratory systems The 8 Cranial Bones Frontal Parietal 2 Temporal 2 Occipital Frontal Bone Forehead roof of orbits amp anterior cranial floor Frontal suture gone by age 6 metopic suture Supraorbital margin and frontal sinus Parietal amp Temporal Bones Parietal 7 sides amp roof of cranial cavity Temporal 7 temporal squama 7 zygomatic process forms part of arch 7 external auditory meatus 7 mastoid process 7 styloid process 7 stylomastoid foramenVll 7 mandibular fossa TMJ 7 petrous portion Vlll Temporal and Occipital bones Temporal 7 carotid foramen carotid artery 7 jugular foramen jugular vein Occipital 7 foramen magnum 7 occipital condyles 7 external occipital protuberance attachment for ligamentum nuchae 7 superior amp inferior nuchal lines Sphenoid bone Base of skull Pterygoid processes are attachment sites forjaw muscles Sphenoid in Anterior View Body is a cubelike portion holding sphenoid sinuses Greater and lesser wings Pterygoid processes Sphenoid from Superior View Lesser wing amp greater wing Sella turcica holds pituitary gland Optic foramen Ethmoid Bone Cranial floor lateral nasal walls amp nasal septum Cribriform plate amp olfactory foramina Crista galli for attachment of membranes cover the brain Lateral masses contain ethmoid sinuses Perpendicular plate is upper part of nasal septum Superior amp middle nasal concha or turbinates 7 filters amp warms air 14 Facial Bones Nasal 2 Maxillae 2 Zygomatic 2 Mandible 1 Lacrimal 2 Palatine 2 lnferior nasal conchae 2 Vomer 1 Maxillary bones Floor of orbit floor of nasal cavity or hard palate Maxillary sinus Alveolar processes hold upper teeth Cleft palate is lack ofunion of maxillary bones Zygomatic Bones Cheekbones Lateral wall of orbit along with sphenoid Part of zygomatic arch along with part oftemporal Lacrimal and lnferior Nasal Conchae Lacrimal bones 7 part of medial wall oforbit 7 lacrimal fossa houses lacrimal sac lnferior nasal concha or turbinate not part of ethmoid Palatine amp Vomer Palatine 7 Lshaped one end is back part of hard palate other end is part of orbit see previous picture Vomer 7 posterior part of nasal septum Mandible Body angle amp rami Condylar amp coronoid processes Alveolar processes for lower teeth Mandibular amp mental foramen Sutures Lambdoid suture unites parietal and occipital Sagittal suture unites 2 parietal bones Coronal suture unites frontal and both parietal bones Squamous suture unites parietal and temporal bones Paranasal Sinuses Paired cavities in ethmoid sphenoid frontal and maxillary Lined with mucous membranes and open into nasal cavity Resonating chambers for voice lighten the skull Sinusitis is in ammation ofthe membrane allergy Fontanels of the Skull at Birth 0 Dense connective tissue membranefilled spaces soft spots 0 Unossi ed at birth but close early in a child39s life 0 Fetal skull passes through the birth canal 0 Rapid growth ofthe brain during infancy Foramina of the Skull 0 Table 73 describes major openings of skull 0 In which bone would you nd the following and what is their function foramen magnum optic foramen mandibular foramen carotid canal stylomastoid foramen Bones of the Orbit 7 Roof is frontal and sphenoid 7 Lateral wall is zygomatic and sphenoid 7 Floor is maxilla zygomatic and sphenoid 7 Medial wall is maxilla lacrimal ethmoid and sphenoid 7 Orbital ssures and optic foramen Nasal Septum Divides nasal cavity into left and right sides Formed by vomer perpendicular plate of ethmoid and septal cartilage Deviated septum does not line in the midline 7 developmental abnormality or trauma Hyoid Bone Ushaped single bone Articulates with no other bone of the body Suspended by ligament and muscle from skull Supports the tongue amp provides attachment for tongue neck and pharyngeal muscles Vertebral Column 0 Backbone or spine built of 26 vertebrae 0 Five vertebral regions cervical vertebrae 7 in the neck thoracic vertebrae 12 in the thorax lumbar vertebrae 5 in the low back region sacrum 5 fused coccyx 4 fused lntervertebral Discs Between adjacent vertebrae absorbs vertical shock Permit various movements ofthe vertebral column Fibrocartilagenous ring with a pulpy center Normal Curves ofthe Vertebral Column Typical Vertebrae 0 Body weight bearing Vertebral arch pedicles laminae Vertebral foramen Seven processes 2 transverse 1 spinous 4 articular Vertebral notches lntervertebral Foramen amp Spinal Canal Spinal canal is all vertebral foramen together lntervertebral foramen are 2 vertebral notches together Typical Cervical Vertebrae C3C7 Smaller bodies Larger spinal canal Transverse processes 7 shorter 7 transverse foramen for vertebral artery Spinous processes of C2 to C6 often bi d 1st and 2nd cervical vertebrae are unique 7 atlas amp axis Atlas amp Axis C1C2 Atlas ring of bone superior facets for occipital condyles 7 nodding movement at atlantooccipital joint signi es yes Axis dens or odontoid process is body of atlas 7 pivotal movement at atlantoaxial joint signi es no Thoracic Vertebrae T1T12 Larger and stronger bodies Longer transverse amp spinous processes Facets or demifacets on body for head of rib Facets on transverse processes T1T10 for tubercle of rib Lumbar Vertebrae Strongestamp largest Short thick spinous amp transverse processes 7 back musculature Sacrum Union of5 vertebrae S1 85 by age 30 7 median sacral crest was spinous processes 7 sacral ala is fused transverse processes Sacral canal ends at sacral hiatus Auricular surface amp sacral tuberosity of SI joint Coccyx Union of4 vertebrae Co1 Co4 by age 30 Caudal or epidural anesthesia during delivery 7 into sacral hiatus anesthetize sacral amp coccygeal nerves 7 sacral and coccygeal cornu are important landmarks Thorax Bony cage attened from front to back Sternum breastbone Ribs 17 are true ribs vertebrosternal 810 are false ribs vertebrochondral 1112 are oating Costal cartilages Bodies of the thoracic vertebrae Sternum Manubrium 7 1st amp 2nd ribs 7 clavicular notch Body 7 costal cartilages of 2 1 0 ribs Xiphoid 7 ossifies by 40 7 CPR position 7 abdominal mm Sternal puncture 7 biopsy Ribs Increase in length from ribs 17 thereafter decreasing Head and tubercle articulate with facets Body with costal groove containing nerve amp blood vessels lntercostal spaces contain intercostal muscles Rib Articulation Tubercle articulates with transverse process Head articulates with vertebral bodies Herniated Slipped Disc Protrusion of the nucleus pulposus Most commonly in lumbar region Pressure on spinal nerves causes pain Surgical removal of disc after laminectomy Clinical Problems 0 Abnornal curves of the spine scoliosis lateral bending ofthe column kyphosis exaggerated thoracic curve lordosis exaggerated lumbar curve Spina bi da is a congenital defect failure ofthe vertebral laminae to unite nervous tissue is unprotected paralysis