U.S. History I
U.S. History I HIST 2111
Popular in Course
Popular in History
This 48 page Class Notes was uploaded by Malvina Carter on Monday October 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2111 at College of Coastal Georgia taught by Patrizia Stahle in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see /class/219599/hist-2111-college-of-coastal-georgia in History at College of Coastal Georgia.
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Date Created: 10/05/15
America Begins 0 30 10000 BC Peopling of America 0 O O Siberian hunters Bering Straits I Nomadic hunters came I They were chasing big game mammals I When they disappeared these were the ppl who lived in the Americas Migrants pushed down to South America and then they stopped in the North America Land Bridge I When the process ended the bridge was covered 0 Nomadic groupsdistinct cultures 0 O 0 Each group pursued their own interests They never developed a common identity I Eventually the Europeans exploited this concept 0 Agricultural revolution 0 O O 0000 As far back as 3000 BC This spread to CentralNorth America Called this bc it brought about changes I lfyou move around looking for food there is instability I Once you stay somewhere and cultivate crops they can expand their population I Happened near bodies of water The first ppl credited w this were the Incas The earlier migrants went to CentralSouth America Very sophisticated groups flourished in CentralSouth America In order to have a civilization you have to have writing to write down the laws 0 Incas Peru Ecuador Chile 11th15th Century 0 First to invite agriculture in the Americas I Lived in the Andes Mountains I They had terraced fields 0 Very efficient imperial organization I The very powerful emperor had messengers I They had a rigid structure in society I On top of society there was the ruling class 0 Religious and military leaders I On the bottom were the peasants I They had a command economy 0 They were communists o AgriculturalTerraced fields 0 All Aspects of life regulated I Sungod was blood thirsty I They had to sacrifice I Human sacrifices either had people s little children or POWs o Pragmatic I Very practical Did not engage in philosophical debates They were great builders o Bridges roads fortresses In spite of their power Pizarro conquered them in the 1530 s 0 Flourished between the 11th15th century Political struggle o 2 brothers looking for power 0 Pizarro came at the right time o For 2 decades the Spanish were fighting and pillaging o Mayans o In the area of Mexico and Guatemala 0 Came around and from the NW coast of California 0 They were very advanced 0 They did like philosophical issues math and astronomy Devised the calendars solar and lunar eclipse First to have a writing system in the Americas They also practiced human sacrifices Reached their height around 1000 AD I Then declined 0 Internal dissension bad crops and the arrival of the Spanish 0 Toltecs SouthCentral America 10001200 AD 0 Topiltzin I Made it powerful and established a capital 0 Tula I The capital and a hub of trade I Between 100 120000 ppl 0 Toltec Confederacy I Very strong until the Toltecs became divided I The king was against human sacrifices and the ppl didn t want to stop so he was exiled 0 He would come back and punish anyone who continued performing them I War Cult I ExpansionDisasterslnternal Dissension Political Division I Sungod 0 Blood thirsty o Quetzalcoatl o Aztecs 13001500 AD 0 Tenochtitlan Mexico City I Was built on an island in the middle of a lake I Built a system of dams for protection and other uses I When the Spaniards came they destroyed it in 1531 o Montezumal 0 Rigid social order but advanced possible O 0 Sun god Human sacrifices Ultimately became obsessed w war Emphasis on violence strength etc Montezuma ll Was the leaders Aztecs were similar to the Romans 1521 Mayans and Toltecs are more like the Greeks Hernando Cortes conquered Was a minor Hidalgo Was in Cuba and heard rumors of gold in presentday Mexico Had a group of 600 men 16 ships etc and went to Mexico He burned all the ships so his men would not go back He was determined to get the gold and become rich He made Montezuma think he was the reincarnation of someone He understood that the neighbors of the Aztecs didn t like them and was able to lay siege and burn Tenochtitlan to the ground He also used disease smallpox Native Cultures in North America Native Cultures in North America 0 Mound Builders Called this bc they built mounds for housing religious ceremonies or burials Early Mississippians built mounds of earth 0 Pueblo lndians Developed a culture 0 Plains Indians 0 Northwestern lndians Lived in wooden houses Were very wealthy 0 Eastern Woodland Indians Both hunters or practice agriculture Algonquian speaking along Atlantic Coast Powhatans Narrangansets Abenakis 0 About 300 different dialects 0 Indian Divisiveness lndians divided but shared cultural assumptions 0 Patterns of contact 0 Europeans thought of the Natives as savages o The Natives thought the Europeans were ehhhh 0 Indian spiritual and social values 0 Colors of the Wind 0 Background of European conquest 0 There were early voyages o The Vikings came to Newfoundland o 984 AD Eric the Red went to Greenland Went back home to Scandinavia His son Leif went to Newfoundland For centuries ppl didn t know if he was a rumor or not In the 60 s they found remains Not until the late 1400s that Spanish conquerors followed suit after Columbus 0 In Europe there was a tremendous population expansion 0 New Monarchs emerged Spain France Louis IX France Henry Vll They got tired of having to call on the nobles They established a tax system and armies Founded the first nation states Spain France England Can t fund voyages if you fightin wars o Renaissance o Rebirth 0 You have new inventions technology I Printing press I New ships triangular sails o Helped make the age of exploration 0 Disease and Dependency o Smallpox 0 Good for the Europeans o Natives had no immunity 0 Once the Natives died down and there was a need for labor they went to Africa to get them 0 Age of Exploration 0 Economic Prosperity o Centralization of authority under quotNew Monarchs 0 Spain 0 La Reconquista o lsabella of Castile 14511504 0 Columbus found San Salvador 0 He died not knowing that he found the new world 0 He opened the age of discovery 0 Amerigo Vespucci o Wrote a book on the new world 0 Wrote to a German editor and mapmaker Said there was a landmass between Europe and Asia Editor thought America would be a good name Both Spain and Portugal wondered who would get what A meeting w the Pope and they drew a line I East of the line was Portugal and West was Spain 0 Portugal was the first in the slave trade 0 Managing an Empire Encomienda system 0 They were like grants by the crown 0 To go to the Americas create villages and make the natives work for them 0 The more successful you are the more natives you had work for you 0 CriollosPeninsulares o Criollos were the local elite 0 They led the revolution to be free from Spain 0 Had the best army in the 6th century 0 Religious fervor o Catholics who are fighting people of another religion 0 The conquerors had two aims I Find the gold and get rich quick I Convert the heathens they exploited the Natives 0 Very independent minded 0 Several Spanish explorers claimed territory 0 1500 s I Juan Ponce De Leon 0 Went to Florida 0 Was looking for gold and the fountain of youth I Cabeza de Vaca I Hernando de Soto 0 First to explore presentday Mississippi I Vasco de Balboa 0 First saw the Pacific Ocean I Cortez o Went to Mexico 0 Spain failed to diversify their economy 0 The empire decline 0 Inflation occurred 0 Mestizos mixed race 0 France 0 1524 John of Verrazzano I First to go along the Atlantic Coast I He was along the Carolinas o 1534 Jacques Cartier I He was the one that discovered the St Lawrence River and present day Montreal 0 1608 Samuel de Champlain I Went to the area of Lake Champlain 0 French Traders 0 They did not look down on the Natives I The locals were their business partners I quotForest runners I French missionaries Converted the Natives 0 They did not like to leave France I The crown was not interested in Canadian affairs I Very detached I Got presentday Louisiana 0 Interested in the northwest passage and fur trade I lndians helped them trap animals 0 England 0 1497 John Cabot I Looking for a NW passage but never found it 0 15081509 Sebastian Cabot I Did the same voyage as his dad 0 Tudor Dynasty I HenryVll He ended the long civil war Two Roses Started a new dynasty Had great administrative skills Left stability and peace Had two sons Arthur and Henry 0 Arthur married Katherine o Died shortly after the marriage I Henry VIII 0 Married Katherine his exsister in law 0 He thought Katherine was attractive 0 Katherine never did give him a boy 0 In 1534 he declared the church of England independent from the Catholic Church o The king is now the head of the church o If you had 1000 acres of land you could serve in the Parliaments 0 Beginning of the Protestant Reformation o All of his legit children could ascend to the throne I Edward VI 0 On the throne for 6 yrs 0 Enhanced the Protestant Reformation I Mary o Daughter of Katherine 0 Changed everything back to Catholicism 0 Married Philip ll of Spain I Elizabeth I 0 Peace for her people 0 Elizabethan Settlement o W the Anglican church 0 Protestant and Catholic 0 W the defeat of the armada there is peace 0 Martin Luther 0 John Calvin Catholic Vs Protestantism 1588 lnvincible Armada Elizabethan conquest of Ireland 1583 Sir Humphrey Gilbert 1584 Sir Walter Raleigh o In one yr ppl in Roanoke ran out of supplies o By the time the governor came back the people were gone 0 No bodies were ever found 0 Virginia Dare was the granddaughter of Governor White First baby born in America Test 1 taken on Jan 19 Grade 93 Tuesday January 24 2012 The Stuart Dynasty The ppl who came to America were either looking for land opportunities groups were looking for religious freedom or escape poverty In England there was a population explosion with more and more poor 0 Landless peasants used to seasonal work 0 With the poor laws judges etc were supposed to give room and shelter to the needy but they had to be in their own village 0 lfthey moved around they lost the right to be taken care of o Enclosures 0 The landlords had the land nobles etc 0 They had part of their land that anyone could cultivate for their own consumption or sell it for money Then the landlords figured that if they closed the free lands and had sheep there they could sell the wool o Transform the free land to enclose them and sell the wool to the Netherlands 0 Political Controversy O o The Stuart Dynasty 0 Liked the Anglican church the way it was w the Bishops O O O O O O O The Protestants thought there was too much Catholicism in this church The Puritans were a broken group middle class liked to have their own preachers wanted to purify their church The new Bible King James version 1611 James was a strong king and he could control the gov t esp Parliament I Died of natural causes His son caused problems I Charles I Had a difficult personality 0 Unbending uncompromising I Was not trained to be king 0 His brother was to be king I Made mistakes 0 Married a French Catholic princess 0 Ruled wo Parliament and Puritans called it tyranny Oliver Cromwell I lronsides were his soldiers I He was a Calvinist First king ousted by Parliament I Was also assassinated After this there was a Puritan commonwealth People left by the thousands I 1630 s40 s I Left bc of religious controversy Thursday January 26 2012 The Stuart Dynasty 0 James 0 Had a lot of experience 0 He did not want to make reforms 0 He liked the Anglican church I No bishops no kings 0 One new version of the Bible I King James Bible of 1611 0 Had two sons I Harry was trained to be king but died I Charles I succeeded him 0 Charles o Uncompromising o Stuttered 0 He refused to make reforms 0 Married a Catholic princess I Sister of king of France 0 Governed wo Parliament I Puritans thought it was a tyranny 0 His archbishop liked to persecute Puritan preachers 0 Book of Common Prayer I Same as the Scots I There was a war w the King I Turned into a religious war I By the end of the war the king will be executed o Protectorate o Cromwell purged all the religious radicals o Puritan republic 0 Sad period of the history of England I Shut down the theatres no dancing in the backyards of the churches no drinking on Sundays 0 When he died his son did not want the job 0 So parliament called Charles II son of Charles I 1660 Restoration 0 Charles II o Partied hard dude o Died of natural causes 0 No legit kids 0 The Anglican church came back as Elizabeth had it 0 James II 0 Brother of Charles II 0 Catholic I He did not bother to be discreet about it I quotDon t ask don t tell policy about Catholicism 0 His church in England was a supported church 0 Was aging when he got to the throne 0 Mary and Anne were his daughters 0 They dealt w his Catholicism bc he was a legit heir to the throne 0 He remarried a Catholic princess I Fathered little James I A legit heir to the throne I When he was born people sang the Rockabye baby song 0 William and Mary 0 Bill of Rights 10 promises o The King of England was always to be Protestant o No cruel and unusual punishment 0 The Glorious Revolution I First time in history constitutional limitations were imposed on a King 0 Englishmen left behind a wrecked England social religious etc problems I Some left to become landowners I Other wanted religious freedom I Others wanted to escape hangmen The Spectrum of Settlement The Chesapeake Experience 0 Virginia 0 JointStock Company I Form a biz company I Have several men put down their 0 1606 James issued Virginia Charter I Granted a charter I Very wealthy men put down SS to buy stocks I If things went wrong you are not responsible for everyone else s debts Get back SS after 7 yrs Virginia Company 0 I Sent 5 ships to the new world 0 1607 Jamestown I Virginia Company did this I By a river James river 0 Death trap I The Natives were hostile I The waters were contaminated w salt I People were dying I All of the guys that came thought they were going to find gold silver etc and did not want to work Captain John Smith I Became the savior ofJamestown O I Military experience I quotDon t work don t eat I Mapped the Chesapeake Bay 0 1609 New Charter I Trying to reimage themselves I Lowered the price of the stocks so that others could buy them I Sent more ships I One ship ran aground one guy delayed his trip ppl didn t want to work I 16091610 Starvation times 0 Governor De La Warr I He established martial law to make people work 0 Tobacco I John Rolfe helped w this I He also married Pocahontas I Saved Jamestown due to this 0 Sir Edwin Sandys I Tried to reimage the Virginia Company I People were still dying I The company issued new rules People who had had the right to 100 acres of land Also known as the quothead right system If you could pay for your own passage to the New World Additional acres could be for your servants who were going to cultivate tobacco for you 0 lndentu red Servants I Those wo I They were hired by the landlord to work for them I Could not pay for their passage I Work for 7 yrs Only receive clothing food and shelter Once they repaid their debts they were free 0 1624 Royal Company I The King controls the company not a business Virginia Company I The King did not make any provisions to abolish the first assembly in America the Virginia Company made House of Burgesses I He made the colony of VA a royal colony 0 Religion had to be Anglican When king James I died and Charles became King he let the Virginians alone 0 Life in Virginia Life was hard lnstability and impermanence 61 men to women ratio Malaria and disease spread 25 infant mortality rate Rigidly structured society 0 People who came w were not noblemen 0 They were second sons of merchants storekeepers w 0 Once they could insure good land for themselves became the elite o Freemen were former indentured servants 0 Most of them did not become rich 0 lndentured servants were at the bottom of the social ladder 0 Not slaves but they saw it as a harsh position 0 Tobacco Inequality Allowed ppl to become very wealthy More servants more leaves more Even though it is easy to cultivate you needed a lot of land Up to the 1680 s it was easy for ppl to become members of the elite 0 From then on ppl got use to the climate and have their kids survive and become the quotindigenous elite Easterners Westerns o Haves havenots o Bacon s Rebellion June 1676 0 Maryland Nathanial Bacon was a successful planter Unhappy w Governor Berkley s policies 0 Thought he played favorites and sucked at protecting the ppl who settled in VA from the Indians When an Indian raid killed his overseer he rose in rebellion He put together an army servants freeman He raided VA and burned Jamestown He died so did the rebellion Showed that there was an eastwest conflict 0 Westerners thought the governor was not protecting them well 0 Put pressure on the gov t to reapportion representation in the House of Burgesses Some of his men were freemen so they had to start bringing servants into VA Basically helped to create slavery o Named for the wife of Charles 0 Sir George Calvert was a Catholic Was given a charter to go to the New World and find a place for Catholics o Cecilius 2nd Lord of Baltimore Find a place for Catholics Bought a village from the Indians Mary City 0 Lord Baltimore Proprietor of Mary s City 7 million acres of land Tried to establish a feudal system w 2 houses Flourished bc of tobacco lssued the 1649 Toleration Act 0 Religious matters I quotTobacco is our all our staple and there is no room for anything else 0 Life in Maryland I 23 of planters lived in houses w small rooms I Some became very wealthy I Named for Henrietta Maria wife of Charles I 0 Religion I Calvinists in England were Puritans I Calvinists in France were Huguenots I Calvinists in were Presbyterians Puritan England 0 Pilgrims 0 Wanted to be separate from the church in England 0 Humble farmers who came from a village north of London known as Scrooby Manor 0 Were only concerned w their own salvation They went to Holland until as their kids grew up they lost their identity to the Dutch kids Petitioned the V Company for the Mayflower and landed on quotNew 0 0 Plymouth 0 They had congregational churches o 1620 Thanksgiving 0 Thanking God for taking them to safety in the land of plenty o Separatists 0 Main characteristic of the Pilgrims 0 Thought they would burn in hell if they stayed with the church 0 16089 Holland 0 Left there when their kids assimilated 0 William Bradford quotOf Plymouth Plantation 0 That s why we know some much about England 0 Mayflower Covenant Mayflower Compact 0 First constitution in the history of America 0 Plymouth The Spectrum of Settlement Puritan New England 0 Calvinist o Radical and committed to significant change 0 Not pleased w the church of England the way it was 0 They were not Separatists but wanted to worship somewhere else 0 John Winthrop o Obtained a charter for Mass Bay in 1629 0 When he obtained it he thought of it as another business venture 0 Nowhere was it written that the members would hold meetings so that they could go to America 0 People left England by the thousands 16421649 England has a civil war First governor and before landing he had a speech City on a Hill 0 I Build a newJerusalem I Build a city away from persecution and freedom of religion 0 Great Puritan Migration o Entire families and villages left to go to New England 0 Every head of the family had enough land to raise a family of 4 Life for a single man would be difficult Each plantation was pretty isolated They survived better bc they had their families In June 1630 Winthrop left England and arrived at Boston Harbor I 700 ppl 11 ships I 1st winter was tough 30 died 0 O O O I By mid1631 1300 arrived and more were on the way 0 New England way 0 Pious and disciplined people 0 People of the middle class 0 Can pay for their passage and live w their families 0 By the 1670 s there were people who had grandchildren As ppl arrived people created towns churches and schools Church leaders were called quot All adult male members of the church could vote Everyone paid taxes to the church OOOOO Everyone must serve in the militia 0 No separation bt church and state in New England 0 Roger Williams 0 Argued that the colony was impure because they had not purchased the land from the Indians I Also that the Puritans thought they were reformed I The main saints had no right to punish ppl for not going to church I Separation of church and state I Banished to Rhode Island and founded a selfgoverning colony 0 Anne Hutchinson 0 Was a very smart woman 0 Knowledgeable of the Bible and started women s Bible study group 0 Puritan saints didn t like that 0 Would say that the main saints were not any better than the archbishop back home 0 Was tried for heresy I Antinomianism 0 During her trial her deep knowledge of the Bible was reveled I Almost was acquitted but she let her guard down I She said she had a personal relation w the Holy Spirit which got her banished I She left the Puritan colony 0 She went to Providence R and then went to New Amsterdam presentday NY Thomas Hooker o Fundamental Order I Allowed ppl who did not attend church the right to vote 0 CT becomes a selfgoverning colony John Wheelwright o Founded New Hampshire 0 Grew slowly and became a separate colony by the 1670 s Life in New England 0 As time went on it became more difficult to prove moral conversion 0 As religious fervor passed a new law was passed 0 The HalfWay Covenant I The mainsaints still baptized children even though their parents had not had a moral conversion Status of Woman 0 Not a golden time for women 0 Men amp women adapted to their gender role Rank and Status 0 Yeomen owned their own land and farmed it 0 Society was homogenous 0 Soon people could not have moral conversions 0 Class issues Salem 0 1692 Salem was an important town and port but there were eastwest problems I Eastern section benefitted from prosperity but west did not 0 They kept changing preachers o The daughter of the minister and 2 others girls started behaving very strangely and everyone blamed the Parrish s domestic servant Tituba 0 So the woman and 2 friends of hers were jailed for suspicion of witchcraft and everyone blamed each other 0 150 ppl were arrested for witchcraft o Eventually 20 people were hanged for being witches Mostly women were hanged 0 Did not have consequences 0 Last episode of witchcraft persecution o Showed the dangers between no separation of church and state Carolinas 0 Stuart Dynasty 0 O O 0 Charles ascended to the throne as Charles II Was in exile trying to find help for his dad Some aristocrats had helped him regain his throne Restoration colonies grants or rewards to those aristocrats by those who helped him regain his throne 0 Product of the Restoration 0 8 Courtiers O 8 gentlemen that got Restoration colonies 0 Sir Anthony Cooper Lord of Shaftesbury 0 00000 One of the courtiers He proposed that they would invest their own money to bring men and ships to Carolina Dispatched about 300 settles Founded Charles Town Sec John Locke Tried to exclude Charles Wrote the constitution of the Carolinas I Two house assembly 0 1669 Persuaded proprietors to invest their own capital 0 Charles Town 0 Settled in presentday SC 0 Barbados 0 The ppl were running out of land and they came to the Carolinas New York 0 Came w their slaves o Experimented w different crops I Cotton silk grapes etc I They finally got it right w rice 0 King George came up w North and South Carolina 0 Were part of the elite 0 New Amsterdam 0 0 Trade 0 O O O O O 0 1664 0 000 O The Dutch West Indian Company was a business venture and came to this area and settled here and Port Orange Albany NY They were interested in the fur trade and hired more workers No land grant or policy No governors The members of the DW company had their director generals They hired different men from different countries and religions Did not do a good job at protecting the ppl on this colony King Charles II In the 1600 s England and Holland fought 3 wars He wanted to take this Dutch colony in the US He got there and released his Articles of Capitulation I No regulation for religious assembly If everyone surrendered they got to stay in the colony regardless of religion Gave the colony to his brother James Duke of York 0 Told his brother to issue Duke s Laws I Provided for local gov t but no revision for representative assemblies 0 James changed his mind and kept the northern part and gave the southern part to 2 of his favs Lord John Berkeley and Sir George Carteret 0 Delaware 0 000000 The Swedish had this colony New Sweden The Dutch took over The Duke of York granted it to the Quakers Was absorbed into Pennsylvania Diff ethnic and religious groups When the Duke of York became King both NY and NJ became royal colonies 0 Pennsylvania 0 000 O Named for William Penn quotPenn s Forrest Proprietor colony Associated w the Quakers I Product of the English Reformation and English War I Believed in an extreme form of Antinomians o Went against orthodox beliefs Protestant but had their own religious beliefs I Quakers was a derogatory term 0 Preferred quotRoyal Friends I Founder was George Fox 0 Concerned about his own salvation and had a moment and saw the inner light 0 His followers were very humble people 0 Did not like war pacifist 0 Were generally disliked lssues I Continuous preaching I Would not serve in the militia Could not servehold office because they would not swear on the Bible 0 William Penn Georgia Very handsome but spiritual Noble family but he associated w humble people Smart but troublemaker Came to America bc of the real estate coup Launched the Holy Experiment Wrote the Frame of Gov t o Allowed all Christians to hold office Quakers Protestants and Quakers fought over who would initiate legislation Before leaving he made the legislature one house Germans came here too 0 Called the quotPenn Dutch Quakers were the first in humanitarian efforts William Penn went back home to defend his colony 0 He ends up in jail and loses the colony 0 James Oglethorpe o Founder of the colony o Aristocrat officer in the English Army 0 Launched an experiment after he visited a debtor s prison Refuge for debtors bc the ones overseas were horrid 0 Also had to protect the colonies from the Spanish in Fl 0 King George II granted the charter in 1732 Granted land btw the Sav River and the Altamaha River Has to be a debtor colony Not huge on immigrants No one could own more than 500 acres If a couple has no kids the land goes back to the trustees I The land can only reverse to the first son I Slavery is prohibited as well as liquor 0 People did fundraisers and donated clothing Bibles tools etc o Oglethorpe went to presentday Savannah and founded Fredericka I Named in honor of Fredrick Lewis father of George III I Becomes a military outpost o Oglethorpe wanted to stop the Spanish I Led an expedition I Laid siege to St Augustine I Underestimated the Spanish army and his people almost rebelled 0 July 1742 I Governor of Florida attacked Fort Fredericka I One contingent of Spanish retired to some marshes to eat and sleep but were attacked by the Scottish Highlanders Battle of Bloody Marsh I Meant that the colony of GA was safe bc the Spanish left and never came back I By 1751 the King authorized an assembly 0 The colony reverted back to the King 0 No more trustees o The colony was never popular I A refugee for debtors but also protection from the Spanish Tuesday February 07 2012 Quiz on Thursday 0 People started leaving England 0 Different ppl left for different reasons 0 No one told them to leave 0 They brought all their habits customs etc and adapted 0 Virginia O O O O O O O O O 0 Joint stock company Investors investing their money and put their resources together limited liability get the grant from King James Malaria people died etc John Smith then comes and makes them work The VC reimaged itself and its land grant system I Headright system I 100 acres for just having the money I Even more if you have family After John Smith things fall apart and people eat each other Then Rolfe came over and had a plan I He brought his tobacco leaves Life in VA High mortality sense of impermanence Gov makes the Anglican church the established religion in VA Land owners freemen indentured servants I IS did not see themselves as ever becoming land owners I Saw their conditions as tough 0 As time went on there were differences btw those who lived there Bacon s Rebellion was a rebellion between the East and West Bacon wanted to participate in the fur trade and westerners could not do that I The guys he recruited were freemen poor farmers Maryland 0 Started to provide a place for freedom of worship for Catholics 0 Sir George Calvert came over and then his son Cecilius founded it o Mary s City becomes Baltimore 0 Henrietta Maria wife of Charles Puritan New England 0 Pilgrims Separatists humble pious people I Children were losing their identity in Holland 0 Church of England was both Protestant and some traces of Catholicism 0 Leader was William Bradford 0 Plymouth will be absorbed in Mass Bay 0 Calvinists 0 John Winthrop 0 quotCity on a Hill was the new Jerusalem 0 Had to experience a quotmoral conversion 0 Entire families and villages were here 0 Was not really a City on a Hill bc of Williams and Hutchinson I Hutchinson said she had a personal relationship w the Holy Spirit 0 HalfWay Covenant 1662 I The grandchildren could be baptized even if their parents were not converted o Puritans were political and religious reformers 0 Biggest events were the Salem Witch Trials 0 Restoration Colonies 0 After the Tudor dynasty and civil wars Cromwell had to purge colonies o No one wants hisjob so Charles II got hisjob back and restored the Anglican church and the Stuart Dynasty 0 Gave colonies to those who helped him regain his throne 0 Sir Anthony Ashley Cooper SC 0 Barbados had ppl come over w their rice crops 0 George II divided into 2 separate colonies 0 New York 0 New Netherland New York 0 England and Holland had a war I Charles II gave to James Duke of York I James kept the Northern part and gave the southern parts to Lord Berkeley and Carteret 0 Penn 0 O O O 0 James becomes King and NY and NJ become royal colonies Associated with William Penn Quakers I Not like the Puritans I Not Protestant I Held their prayer meetings in a circle and kept quiet until they were inspired by the inner light I They were always preaching and pacifists I Would not testify in court or hold office Lost the colony due to problems w corruption and William Penn ends up in jail Oglethorpe I Visionary I Military man I Makes Ft Fredericka a fort against the Spanish I Did an exploration which failed Then did another one Two aims I Curtail Spanish exploration I Give colony to debtors Not a popular colony due to many restriction A frontier colony The British Empire in America Colonists in an Empire 16601750 0 Two groups needed the kings and the merchants O O The gentry in Parliament thought that England must have a bigger navy England must achieve a balance of trade Based on mercantilism 0 Politics of Empire 0 Mercantilism Colbert Devised by Colbert minister of Finance King Louis did not want any more instability An opinion in the economy opposite of free trade Meant that country must achieve selfsufficiency o Discourage foreign imports do domestic exports accumulate gold and silver 0 Bullion is goldsilver The gov t supports domestic industry 0 France was making lace silk tapestry and porcelain Desirable to acquire overseas colonies in order to gain raw materials for the mother country High centralized type of economy were the gov t controls everything France is the most powerful of the European colonies 0 Navigation Acts Relation btw England and overseas colonies The English gov t wanted to make sure they could control trade within the colonies No ships could trade within the colonies unless it was built in England or the Americans and the crews had to be at least 75 English Tobacco indigo dyes etc had to be shipped to an English port or another colonial port Tobacco cotton sugar indigo ginger etc Passed to benefit the British traders and gov t o Lords of Trades A new cabinet office to control overseas trade 0 Board of Trade William accepted this 0 The Triangular Trade Anglicanzation of the Americans due to the trade They started thinking that to be American is somewhat different Developed important trade patterns Glorious Revolution 0 When James came to the throne in various stages he incorporated Mass Ct R NH NY and NJ All one colony One house town meetings and religious meetings Edmund Andros had a tyrannical temperament o Enforced Navigation Acts 0 Said town meetings were illegal 0 Made Puritans shared meetings w Anglicans 0 They put him jail and sent leaders to talk to William of Orange 0 He appointed the governor o Regardless of the church one attended everyone could vote Changes in NY 0 Was a Dutch colony til the English got it 0 Jacob Leisler Maryland Wanted to right wrongs Seized a harbor in the name of William and Mary His enemies were waiting and was arrested for treason When a new governor arrived Leisler had been executed NY is divided by factions 0 Followers of Leisler or antiLeisler 0 Elite were Catholics o Tired of Baltimore family dictating to them I Held it until the American Revolution 0 Official religion became the Anglican religion The Atlantic Slave Trade Went on for four centuries Slave traders kept meticulous records Slavery was already going on in Africa 0 Slaves were either not liked by the king or POW s o No difference in color of the skin When the Europeans got there did their interventions cause more wars in Africa Portugal started and then everyone else Slaves were taken from West Africa First ship came to Jamestown in 1616 Blacks worked during the day but were free to do whatever during the night 0 As the s increased there is a need to pass some laws to define their status I All Africans brought in VA were slaves I All babies born to an African woman was a slave regardless of paternity 0 Royal African Company simply to furnish slaves 0 Main port of entry was Charleston 0 West Indies o The slaves were brought in greater s o The conditions were pretty difficult I Diet nature of work and relations w mastersowners I All land was used to grow sugar I Raising sugarcane is different from tobacco and cotton I Had to work yr round 0 Had to keep importing new slaves o Plantation ownership was different I Overseers were hired I Tended to be very cruel 0 Politics of Empire 0 Salutary Neglect I Healthy neglect I Once George I came to the throne someone told him to leave the colonies alone 0 The Colonial Assemblies I Become more significant I The elite is influential 0 Set the tone 0 Had an obligation to protect the ppl in America I Americans though their system of gov t was a quotmini English gov t 0 System in America was reapportioned often 0 Could always vote out the ppl you didn t like 0 Feb 14 2012 Initial quiz grade 80 Final grade 88 Colonies in an Empire 16601750 From an American viewpoint wars were fought for westward expansion As they were fighting alongside the Redcoats they developed a sense of not being quite English We re different The wars that were 0 K 0 War of League of Augsburg King William s War 0 War of Spanish Succession Queen Anne s War I Queen Anne was on the throne 0 War of Austrian Succession King George s War I Similar case I Throne of Austria was vacant 0 Expanding Horizons 0 Population expansion I Immigration from Europe I The Scotslrish were a huge group I Settled people from Scotland in Northern Ireland I Population was 25 million I 1790 was the first census I Jefferson did it I Mid18th century half the population lives in cities 0 Scotslrish o Germans quotPennsylvania Dutch I People from Germany I Part of future Germany near the Rhine 0 Transportation Act I People in England thought it was a good law Gave ppl who were in trouble w the law the opportunity to not be hanged if they decided to be indentured servants in the colonies Judges magistrates etc decided this Ben Franklin quotHow should we repay the English gov t for this gift quotI would propose rattlesnakes and have them distributed in the gardens in the nobility and gentry but primarily in the gardens of the PM lords of trade and parliament 0 Economic Expansion Made the Americans think they were part of an empire English merchants always extended credit to the US By mid18th century many Americans are in debt to English merchants 2 million pounds America s debt 0 Cultural Ambivalence Not quite American 0 Enlightenment o Started in the late 1600 s to the 1700 s 0 Started in France w the Philosophe They were intellectuals Social critics Present day sociologists Many were scientists Voltaire and Montesquieu They wanted things to be based on reason Prove laws that can be understood through reason 0 Voltaire Was exiled in England France was cool til Louis XIV didn t do religious toleration quotI don t believe a word you re saying but I will fight to the death for you to say it o Montesquieu Geographic determinism I Laws traditions and religion are affected by the environment I That s how people developed their own laws I Romans came up w checks and balances o Tests of Faith in Science I Realized that the church supported the idea that the Earth was in the middle of the universe I Copernicus o Heliocentric theory 0 On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres 1543 o Devout Catholic 0 Did not publish his book until right before his death 0 Claimed that the sun was in the middle I Johannes Kepler o Planetary laws of motion 0 Continued observations and realized that the orbits of the planets are elliptical not circular Paces of the planets accelerated when planets approached the sun 0 Supported the heliocentric theory 0 Representatives of the Enlightenment 0 Sir Isaac Newton I Principia Mathematica I Theory of gravity I All objects in the universe attract one another 0 John Locke I Epistemology o Explains how we learn anything I quotHuman understanding I Study of political theory I Making society more rational I Tried to make sense of how governments are made 0 No divine right kings or governments Human behavior is shaped by reason The mind at birth is a blank slate and ppl are taught how to be kings Knowledge can be obtained through education observation etc I Theory of Gov t 0 They are made based on a contract between the people and the king 0 Protect the natural rights of the people 0 Rights you are born with 0 Should the sovereign fail to do this they shall kick this person out and find someone else 0 Theories I Kings hold office because of this innate ability to lead I Aristocrats hold office for nearly the same reason I Locke disagreed on the innate abilities I No difference between a prince born to a king and a baby born to a peasant I People are taught how to govern and everything can be understood through education I 0 Ben Franklin I American representative I Came from a large family I Was a genius and by the age of 40 that he did his own experiments and whatnot I Was a diplomat in France I Writing pamphlets in favor of American independence I Rich tycoon by age 40 0 Dedicated himself to his experiments and inventions o Negotiated with England 0 Deism They were not atheists They did believe in God He set the world in motion and then let the world do its own thing You can only understand these kinds of concepts through faith 0 Great Awakening An evangelical movement A revival of Calvinist doctrines 0 Jonathan Edwards Was a preacher in North Hampton Mass There he was the local congregational minister His preaching started this revival The main theme repent or burn in Hell forever Hopelessness of human condition unless you repent Read his printed sermons in church This way spread to other preachers Revivalists were called quotNew Lights People would faint and have moral conversion experiences 0 George Whitefield Trained at Oxford Follower of Wesley Traveled throughout the colonies Would draw crowds of thousands Did not read his sermons in church As ppl listened they would shiver shake pass out etc 0 Why is this important The preachers wanted to save souls Made American society more moral ethical Ppl then became enraged when they figured out that England was tyrannical etc People who embraced this movement were quotnew lights Conservatives called themselves quotold lights 0 True faith religion beliefs require sacrifice prayer meditation Ppl will be religious and then it will die down Revived the need for education which had new schools pop up 0 O o Protestantism was important in the unfolding of Colonial Society 17201765 0 This is this issue that the Americans was to expand westward but Indians and French ppl are there 0 Seven Years War 0 War for world dominion btw England and France I Fought in India Europe 17561763 and America I Seen within the framework in a century long struggle I Rights of Prussia under Frederick the Great 0 In 1754 French Indian War 0 The French built a fort Duquesne in presentday Pittsburgh 0 Governor of VA sent a contingent by George Washington I Build another fort and dislodge the French I Taken prisoner and then let go o Proved that one colony could not fight the French 0 The English sent an expedition from Canada 0 1754 Albany Congress 0 Several colonies sent representatives 0 Ben Franklin reps Penn I Common issues of Defense I Thinking of a federation of colonies w common aims I Parliament does not agree 0 1755 Major General Braddock 0 Aging obese 0 From Canada 0 In July he was defeated 8 miles from Duquesne O 70 of his troops were killed 0 Seven years war 0 0000000 0 O Started spontaneously Declared in 1756 English did not fight in Europe The aim in Europe was to prohibit the aggrandizement of Prussia Elizabeth died and Peter became King In India the Brits beat the French The English got India Most important part was fought in N America I Things didn t go well until William Pitt became PM I Pitt had a vision of England making a huge empire I If England wanted to win they had to cut the bills I English gov t borrowed heavily from countries Col Amherst and James Wolfe I Once they get to Canada the outcome turned in favor of the English I There were communication issues with the French Battle of Quebec I Montcalm and Amherst were fatally wounded 1763 I French were defeated I According to the treaty had to gift Canada and Quebec to England I Spain was on the side of England French are out of the mainland Gave LA to Spain Canada and Quebec to England After the war Americans no longer needed the protection of the mother country But the English were broke so they taxed the colonies 0 Issued the Proclamation Line of 1763 o Prohibited American colonies to go beyond the line bc it costs too much to protect them 0 The Standing Army had to stay there 0 French amp Indian Wars I England is broke 0 They taxed America I Brought colonies together I Gave them a sense of purpose I Trained young officers Washington how to fight in America 0 Guerilla War 0 American Views I America thought itself to be more moral I Influence of the Enlightenment 0 Natural rights did not have to be argued I Influence of the Great Awakening 0 Will not be oppressed by any country that did not think of its people s natural rights Road to Revolution 0 George Ill 0 Grandson of George II 0 Father was Frederick Louis Prince of Wales 0 Lonely little child 0 Grandpa hated him 0 Not a tyrant but difficult personality 0 During his rule it was hard for his officials to understand what he wanted 0 PMs were coming and going 0 Agitation in the colonies bc of taxation wo representation 0 o The Earl of Bute o The Issue of Representation 0 Can t regulate trade 0 Ifwe don t send any reps to London the colonial assembly should tax us 0 Americans thought that each colony had a mini Parliament I Colonial assembly House of Commons 0 In England they had about 20 of the population able to vote 0 quotYou are virtually represented o If we don t like what they re doing we can vote them out 0 American view vs English view 0 Writings being passed around 0 Criticized the English system 0 Thomas Gordon etc 0 Power corrupts Politics of Virtue 0 People are born w natural rights 0 No arguing no explanation o Proclamation of 1763 0 George Grenville Tuesday February 21 2012 Road to Revolution 0 George Grenville o Proclamation of 1763 0 British drew a line during the proclamation of Paris I Prohibited governors from allowing colonies to go beyond the line bc it cost too much to defend them I Standing army was kept on American soil 0 King 0 King would elect the majority leader of the majority party American Revolution 0 Whigs American patriots who argued that the British gov t was inept and wanted independence 0 Tories loyalists 0 An American loyalist someone whose body is in America and head is in England 0 100k Loyalists left after the AR Earl of Bute o The prince s tutor 0 He appointed Grenville after this 0 Claimed he knew how to get from the colonists Grenville o Pushed through Parliament the Sugar Act I Also known as Revenue Act I Needed to support the standing army Sugar Act 0 Americans resented this 0 quottaxation wo representation 0 Had no major impact Stamp Act 1765 o Grenville came up with this 0 Taxed anything written on paper I Documents any legal transactions etc o Impacted everyone 0 Generated a mass political movement House of Burgesses 0 Passed 5 resolutions denouncing the Stamp Act as illegal o By Oct 1765 a stamp act congress was called in NY Stamp Act Congress 0 Urged ppl not to buy the stamps George Ill 0 Got tired of Grenville o Replaced him w Marquis of Rockingham I Young but idealistic I Idea of huge British empire I Didn t like the bad relations I In favor of repealing the Stamp Act I Found an ally in Parliament I William Pitt 0 PM at the time of the AR o Decided England had to pick up the bills after the 7 years war 0 Stamp Act repealed March 1766 o Declaratory Act I We can tax you on anything 0 Charles Townshend Budget Officer Replaced William Pitt Knew how to get from the colonies Passed a law in Parliament quotTownshend Duties Taxed all American imports paper paint lead glass and tea 0 They had to pay import tax In order to enforce it an American board of customs commissioners was established 0 Supported and not protected by English commonlaw 0 English mistake I Moved troops from Nova Scotia to Boston I Whenever they marched people flipped out 0 Boston Massacre British troops are marching through the cold Crowd threw snowballs w rocks in them at the soldiers Someone fires and 5 Americans die British troops who were involved all but 2 were acquitted John Adams was their lawyer O O O O I Another example of British oppression Lord North I New PM I On the same day of the BM he goes to repeal some acts I Figured out how to deal with the king I Wanted good relations w the colonies Thought the Townshend Duties should be repealed 0 Except the tax on tea lnterlude of Order I Normal patterns of trade I No boycotting English goods I Loyalists emerged as an identifiable group 0 Did not want to sever ties Samuel Adams I Sons of Liberty had nothing to fight bc there was no agitation I Leader of this radical group of patriots in Mass Comm Of Correspondence I Carried messages to the various colonies I Sense of belonging in the colonies May 1773 I English pass Tea Act 0 Clause only politically correct ppl those who did not participate in any political dissension could sell tea from India I Passed to bail out the British East India Bay Co 0 Commercial venture a la Virginia Company 0 Had the monopoly of trade of the tea from India I Sons of Liberty have a reason to be pissed now 0 We re gonna smuggle Dutch tea Boston Tea Party I Through all the tea overboard I ByJan 1774 the British passed the Coercive Acts o Coercive Acts Jan 1774 I Aimed at isolating Mass I Imposed martial law on Boston 0 Prohibited public town meetings 0 Quebec Act I 10 yrs of trying to find out what to do w Quebec I Ohio RiverValley was given to Canada I Roman Catholicism was the official religion I Result was calling a Congress 0 Continental Congress I Sept 5 1774 I Since the beginning they re divided 0 GA didn t send any bc it was primarily filled with Loyalists I Divided by moderates and radicals I Moderates won at first I CC endorsed the Suffolk Resolves 0 Bold statement made in Mass 0 Encouraged resistance to the coercive acts I Created Continental Association 0 Boycott British goods 0 Stopped exporting American goods to England 0 Gen Gage I New military governor His intel told him that in Concord there were hidden weapons I Decided this was time to quotshow force I Revere told everyone the British were coming and no weapons were found I Marched back to Boston 0 Lexington and Concord I As they approach Lexington someone fired a shot I 80 Americans dead 300 dead Red Coats Thursday February 23 2012 Second Continental Congress 0 Moderates and radicals o Reluctant revolutionaries o Reluctant about cutting ties o Moderates prevailed for a while and drafted the olive branch petition sent to George III I Please abolish the coercive acts I Quit w expedition Olive Branch 0 George III Bunker Hill 0 The new military governor Thomas Gage suffered causalities and the king is mad 0 At this time G Washington were still loyal to George Ill 0 When King G heard this he got really mad Prohibitory Act Dec 1775 o Prohibiting any trade w the colonies 0 Until you come to your senses and quit w the rebellion Jan 1776 0 Common Sense is published by Thomas Paine Thomas Paine 0 He had encountered Ben Franklin during his issues in Europe Thomas Jefferson 0 Adams claimed he was the best guy to write the DO DO 0 He talks about natural rights 0 Draws from the Enlightenment Crane Brinton o The Anatomy of Revolution 0 All revolutions have similar factors that led to them I The smart people go against the establishment Poor people don t have the factors to do so The middle class have a growing sense that their wealth is in danger Social factors class conflicts become very bitter and explosive There is a budget problem and an awareness of this 0 Ppl with property see that it is in danger Failure to make an effective show of force Never an act of despair but rather an act of hope
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