APPARATUS DESIGN PHGN 384
Colorado School of Mines
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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Donato Hoeger Jr. on Monday October 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHGN 384 at Colorado School of Mines taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see /class/219612/phgn-384-colorado-school-of-mines in Engineering Physics at Colorado School of Mines.
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Date Created: 10/05/15
MEX 102 Alex Yuffa May 4 2008 Contents 1 Basic mathematics 11 Exercise 12 Exercise 13 Exercise 2 Mathematical symbols 21 Exercise 22 Exercise 2 3 Exerc1se 24 Exercise 2 5 Exercise 3 Additional mathematical symbols 31 Exercise 32 Exercise 33 Exercise 4 Other multiline environments 41 Exercise 5 Dirac notation 51 Exercise 52 Exercise 6 Matrices 61 Exercise 7 Submit DMMN AgtAgtAgtQD wwwwww a 1 Basic mathematics ln physics7 we frequently encounter complicated mathematical expressions that need to be typeset Typesetting mathematical expression in ETEX is simple in principle but does require some practice In fact7 one may say that the soul of ETEX is mathematics Lets start our systematic learning of ETEX mathematics Carefully read Section 72 of You may wish to take notes andor photocopy some pages lt7s of paramount importance that you read Section 72 of 11 Exercise Do Exercise 72 on pages 125 126 of Hint mathrmi is used to denote V71 Save your TEX le as username3 tex7 where username is your username 12 Exercise Do Exercise 74 on page 126 of Save your TEX le as username3 tex7 where username is your username 13 Exercise Do Exercise 75 on page 126 of Hint mathrmdx is used for dx Save your TEX le as username3 tex7 where username is your username 2 Mathematical symbols Carefully read Section 73 of You may wish to take notes andor photocopy some pages lt7s of paramount importance that you read Section 73 of 21 Exercise Typeset Exercise 76 on page 131 of Save your TEX le as username3 tex7 where username is your username 22 Exercise Typeset Exercise 77 on page 131 of Hint Do this exercise in small chunks ie7 don7t try to typeset the whole thing at once Save your TEX le as username3 tex7 where username is your username 23 Exercise Typeset Exercise 78 on page 131 of Save your TEX le as username3 tex7 where username is your username 24 Exercise Do Exercise 711 on page 131 of Save your TEX le as username3 tex7 where username is your username 25 Exercise Typeset the following vzi i2i2 2m 72m 3x2 3y 322 Hint Use left right for Save your TEX le as username3 tex7 where username is your username 3 Additional mathematical symbols We frequently use bracketing to enclose part of the mathematical formula The bracketing needs to be the same size as the enclosed part of the mathematical formula For example7 gr andnot g The above is accomplished via left and right commands7 for example left fracab right 1 a left fracab right 3 leftl fracab rightl a left fracab right II 3 101 3 a a Note that curly braces7 7 must be escaped7 ie7 not 31 Exercise Read Section 747 of 1 and then do Exercise 717 on page 142 of Save your TEX le as username3 tex7 where username is your username 32 Exercise Bold symbols in ETEX are achieved via boldsymbol command7 eg7 boldsymbolTheta produces 81 Typeset the following paying close attention to the boldness77 of the symbols vE 6B VXE7E Save your TEX le as username3 tex7 where username is your username 33 Exercise Typeset the following EAT e ik39ri Hints mathrme is used if e7 denotes the exp function To produce i7 or 7 without the dot use imath and jmath7 respectively Save your TEX le as username3 tex7 where username is your username 4 Other multiline environments There is a whole slew of multiline environments provided by the amsmath package7 eg7 align7 gather7 falign7 multline7 alignat7 split We wont use most of them but in terested reader should read Section 1526 of The one multiline environment77 that we will use is the cases environment The cases environment is used to typeset piecewise de ned functions7 for example 1According to the International Standards Organization ISO7 vectors should be written in boldface ital icsi This rule is almost always violated in physics don t ask why by typesetting vectors in bold upright font If you want to continue to violate the ISO rule use mathbf instead of boldsymbol7 eigi7 E instead of E Hx quot0 begincases O amp textfif X leq O 1 amp textif x gt O endcases Notice the strategic placement of the amp7 char is started via Below is another example 0 if 0 ifgt0 acter The new line in the cases environment fthe cases environment beginequation HX begincases O amp textif xltO fracf12 amp textfif XO 1 amp textif xgtO endcases labelstepFunc ifzlt0 ifz0 ifzgt0 1 endequation Eqn 1 is known as Heaviside step function 41 Exercise Typeset the following Derivative of is given by iflt0 ifgt0 if7 0 if0 where 6x is the Dirac delta function Strictly speaking7 relation de ned by 2 is not a function but rather a generalized function or a distribution 2 Save your TEX le as username3 tex7 where username is your username 5 Dirac notation If you continue your study of physics7 you will encounter Dirac bracket notation In this short section7 we will learn the proper way to typeset the bracket notation In order to typeset Dirac bracket notation with ease we need to add bracket package to our preamble Via usepackagebraket notice that there is no c7 in braket The following syntax is used to typeset Dirac bracket notation BraDmega KetLambda lt9l BraketDmega Lambda Agt BraketDmega lHl Lambda lt9lAgt lt9lHlAgt 51 Exercise Add usepackagebraket to the username3 tex preamble and then typeset the following dltFgt 7 dF 7 dF Tl ME WWWEM Hint To produce use langle F rangle Save your TEX le as username3 tex7 where username is your username 52 Exercise Typeset the following Q v l5jgt lt51l M 1 x H Save your TEX le as username3 tex7 where username is your username 6 6 Matrices Carefully read Section 1524 of 1 and then do the following exercises 61 Exercise Typeset the following matrix lt951l951gt lt951l952gt lt951l953gt lt951l954gt lt2 l 1gt 2 l 4gt mm ltz4lz2gt ltz4l csgt ltz4lz4gt Save your TEX le as username3 tex7 where username is your usernarne 7 Submit Print out your usernamel pdf7 username2 pdf7 username3pdf les and turn them in for grading Also7 copy usernamel tex7 username2 tex7 username3tex les into NetvoodoohomeayuffaFieldSession directory References 1 Helrnut Kopka and Patrick W Daly7 Guide to EYEX 4th edn Addison Wesley7 2004 Data Acquisition Computer interfaces and Software beyond Labview Industry standards GPIB General Purpose Interface Bus VISA Virtual Instrument Standard Architecture SCPI Standard Commands for Programmable Instruments How does the computer talk to the hardware Appticanuns Program The term driver is broadly used daqmcndm channelrnu ersue and often refers to code that scanCount triggerSnurce triaDirection triutevemrewinl interacts directly with the hardware v0 Library usuallyaDLL called device drivers or code that interacts with the high level software such as Labview called D D Vxn gf39ggmg39l m an 1nstrument dr1ver or 11brary One problem with this scheme is that it is often unique to that hardware and often in exible GPIB reminder Standard by HP 1965 IEEE standard 488 1978 IEEE4882 1978 8 data lines and grounds 5 bus management lines 3 handshake lines ISO M33 x I16 THREAD I m QGNALGROUND GROUNDFORATN GROUNDFORSRQ GROUNDFORJFC GROUNDFORNDAC GROUNDFORNRFD GROUNDFORDAV HEN HOB MO MOE MOS LISE TWISTED PAIFIS SHOULD BE GRDUNEIED NEAR TERIuIIN TIUN EIF EITHER 39LI39LI39IRE DF TWISTED FAIR I ISO M33 x LEI THREAD II SHELD ATM SR9 WC NDAC NRFD DAV E0 m04 MOS MOE MOI GPIB Takers and Listeners Connections via daisy chain for up to 15 devices with a maximum length of 20 m All devices are listeners or talkers or both System may have multiple controllers but only one may be in charge at a time The controller watches bus to see activity and determines Who are the talkers listeners or neither I Controller in charge I GPIB Bus management These are connected in parallel to all devices and are ACTIVE LO ATN separates commands LO from data HI IFC asserted by controller to set system to a predetermined state REN asserted by controller to enable devices for control EOI means End Or Identify and often used for multiline transfers SRQ some action by the controller is requested by a device The response is serial or parallel poll GPIB Handshake Handshake Lines remember how RAM write work or how RS232 serial works In both cases there are control signals that determine timing of writing Listener indicates ready to LISTEN Talllter puts data on bus and indicates it is valid DAV oListener accepts data NRFD I Talllter stops send1ng data data not valld oListener ready for last bit NDAC GPIB Commands The format of the command is standard but cryptic It is almost register style commands These are sent as a byte over the data lines when ATN is LO Examples Take control 0000 1001 Listen Address 1011 xadd Unlisten 0011 1111 The difficulty with these commands are that from a programming point of View they are implemented in software in different manners by different vendors Applications Program Instrument Library lixrlplugstnlay Compatible DLL Win Model Instrument Lrihranj Vltlplugstplay Cnmpatlble GWln Model viHead addresacommand 39u lerIE laddressmmmand VISADLL no Library VXIbus System Device Driver VxD or Kernel Mode Wilkins Instrument The lack of standards drove an open software development for automated test equipment that was standard and once removed from the hardware level It was called the Virtual Instrument Software Architecture Now commands are more standard SCPI Standards developed in 1990 s latest version 1999 by consortium which sets rules for abbreviations and format called the Standard Commands for Programmable Instruments SCPI MEASurement Function FORMat CALC bISPlay Signal Generation SOURce H CALC FORMat Example of SCPI The TextroniX Oscilloscope follows this convention The data from the oscilloscope has two forms numerical data either ASCII or binary related to the trace CURV or header or Preamble data WFMPre that speci es what the data means From the preamble you can determine what the actual data was TODAY make a Virtual instrument using the 10 Assistant and the SCPI commands A requirement is that you also add a control that allows you to change the voltsdivision Make as much progress as you can towards a Virtual oscilloscope
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