Introduction to Reactor Physics and Analysis
Introduction to Reactor Physics and Analysis PHGN 590
Colorado School of Mines
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Date Created: 10/05/15
Introduction to Nuclear Reactions O Sawu 4 farHo s dd ge39iun I General features II Conservation Laws 111 Cross section and reaction rates IV Energy Dependence Scintillator m X Charged y particle 3 2000 V 1 Light pipe X Z i Photo cathode r rq Q a Leading edge Dynode 1 Dynode 2 a d ALL I AL V39 39 39V39 39 Pulse height Dynode 13 l 13 b 1 Q quot Dynode 14 1 M 4 w Output pulse M Q h AAA A Al Fig 42 Scintillation counter A particle passing through the scintillator produces light which is transrnitted through a light pipe onto a photomultiplier I Number of i Events Fullenergy peak A If A Compton events I I L l l I I I Pulse Height Fig 44 Scintillation spectrum NaITl crystal 107 104 Avl Counts l l 107 06 l Tillml 1 Liiiuul 3 H 1407 2283 3645 4872 6677 7726 Energy keV Fig 48 Complex gammaray spectrum due to gross ssion products observed by a germanium detector upper curve and a scintillation detector lower curve From F S Goulding and Y Stone Science 170 280 1970 Copyright I970 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science V l HA ampli er 39 gVPm39r N layer P layer Bulk Fig 49 Ideal fully depleted semiconductor detector with heavily doped surface layers of opposite types I M l Can an Glass window Mechanical drive system Fig 411 Bubble chamber schematic diagram 5M W Palm 4 a it Mk39ll quot eucd39 Heliumneon gals A g g Outgoing partic B iconiing article 5333 k C Outgoing part Sm High voltage pulse Ill J Lil39 Fig 413 Spark chamber arrangement The spark chamber consists of a array of metal plates in a heliumeneon mixture 1f the counterandlogic systcl has decided that a wanted event has occurred a highvoltage pulse is sent t alternate plates and sparks are produced along the ionization trails General Characteristics of Nuclear Reactions 1 chargedion reactions 39 14 15 w f 39r p Ngt 07 NF 0 2H 6Li gt 7Li p 4He 14N gt p 170 9Be 6Li gt 14N n 2 neutroninduced Z pngt2Hy PM H 14N n gt i Q3e 235U n gt 104Mo 131Snquot n 3 w u v 52 3 photonuclear 14N ygt13C p 2Hygtpn Nuclear Reaction and Conservation Laws 2H 6Li gt 7Li 1H Q 1 Energymomentum conservation Q gt O gt exothermic only need to overcome coulomb Q lt O gt endothermic can t go unless some W energy is provided 2 Charge conservation 3 Nucleon number conservation S WAW647quot MC l 731674 M75 7 lg 74 NabDOQC AWN1 do A CW T 9 1L 4 260g A W EDS V 397 z 2533 D FMJ Z GOBL Pubcm Calculuh a 4 39Hu than 2 L 7L2 3914 L39MPYA Nuclear reaction rates Question How do we characterize the incident beam of particles Answer The incident ux I Number of incident particlessec Area V v I density x velocity Hug target Characterizing the NuclearReaction Rate Cross Section Reaction Rate I x 039 G is the cross section numbersec 0 area numbersecarea Scale of a typical nuclear cross section 10 fm2 lbarn 103924 cm2 AIquot a w Exw h mar896639o CchJm MM I Ha WVJce39hh f a 88 m fcrrha g 74 67zarnlo s7 Example calculation of reaction rate 23 u X39 1 n 235U gt ssion fragments gt 235 1L Let 025 eV 300 OK room temperature I 1cm2s 582 barns 025 eV 0 ssion from Lamarsh Table 112 What is the ssion rate in 1cm3 of natural uranium 72 235U 2r K a 9 W Como H Nagcu Ennfh In 539 K V t n u a 365 as 32 P 3 Coup MM 338 cent1 aquot k 54 war gaunt H39 baa int fr 1i fwd wH 41 5M Ya iu Nav l39mms all C M 7 L su infcu w L E 01 V 300 95 o jMLS 7A 0 81 barns LamJ IWII oz v 0k mum Modeff 45550 nequot i QM f a lagquot ych